Engaku (縁覚 cause-awakened one) (縁覚)

Engaku (pratyekabuddha, paccekabuddha, Sanskrit: प्रत्येक बुद्ध) is a term in Buddhism and Jainism, which means one who attains enlightenment through his own efforts without listening to the teachings of Buddha. Byakushibutsu (辟支仏) is an old translation, which was a transliteration of the original Sanskrit word or of its colloquial language form. It is also translated as dokkaku (独覚: self-awakened one) in Chinese.

Pratyekabuddha' was translated as '縁覚' (which comprises 縁 [en]; pratyaya [indirect causes which assist direct causes] and 覚 ['kaku' or 'gaku' depending on a case]; to be awakened, to attain enlightenment]) in Buddhism because it is the one who perceives the principle of dependent origination through contemplation on juni-innen (十二因縁: the twelve-linked chain of causation [nidana] that lead from rebirth to death, seeing existence as an interrelated flux of transient events that occur in a series, one producing another), or who comes to attain enlightenment thanks to various ge-en (外縁: external and indirect causes which assist internal and direct causes). There are two types of dokkaku; bugyo-dokkaku (部行独覚) who pursues enlightenment in company with his peers, and rinkakuyu-dokkaku (麟角喩独覚) who searches after enlightenment alone, looking as solitary as a single horn (角) of a qilin (麒麟) does. Grouped in a bundle and referred to as the 'two vehicles', engaku and shomon (声聞: Śrāvaka, 'voice-hearer' - one who hears and practices Buddha's teachings for the good of himself but not of others) are looked down on in Mahayana Buddhism where their attitudes are considered egocentric.

'Engaku' and 'dokkaku' are differentiated particularly in the Tendai sect - the former being one enlightened through contemplation on the twelve-linked chain of causation in the world of Buddha and the latter, one who attains enlightenment observing such ge-en as scattering of blossoms and falling leaves (natural phenomena) in the world of no Buddha.

[Original Japanese]