Hoe (法会)

Hoe (Buddhist memorial services) are gatherings of Buddhist monks and parishioners for memorial services and Buddhist preaching.

Hoe were also conducted from ancient times in India and China including celebrations of the birthday of Buddha and Buddha's enlightenment, and in Japan Soga no Umako was already promoting Buddhist memorial services. In the Nara period, three ceremonies were emphasized including the Gosaie Ceremony inside the palace, Yuima-e Festival in Kofuku-ji Temple and Saisho-e Ceremony at Yakushi-ji Temple, and in the Heian period the three ceremonies emphasized were Daijo-e at Hossho-ji Temple, Saisho-e at Enshu-ji Temple and Hokkekai, and monks who mastered all three ceremonies were called Sanei-koji (also called Sane-koji or Koji for short).

Subsequently, the term Hoe came to mean the same as Hoyo (Hoji) memorial services for the deceased.

Main Buddhist memorial services

Shushoe (New Year practice), Shunie

Setsubun Ritual (at start of a new season)

Nehane Ritual (anniversary of Buddha's death)

Higan (Equinoctial weeks)

Kanbutsue (Buddha's birthday)

Urabon (Festival of the dead)

Hojo-e (Rite to show thanks and respect to living creatures)

Seido-e (celebrating Buddha's enlightenment)

Ceremonies performed on the anniversaries of deaths of founders of various sects

Shomieiku Ceremony: Kukai

Gyokidaie Ceremony: Honen

Hoonko Ceremony: Shinran

Kaisanki Ceremony: Kennin-ji Temple, Eisai (a Japanese monk also known as Yosai)

Oeshiki Nichiren Sect Ceremony, anniversary of death of High Priest Nichiren (founder of Nichiren Sect): Nichiren

Oeshiki Shotoku Sect Oeshiki (Anniversary of death of founder): Prince Shotoku (Prince Regent of Japan)

[Original Japanese]