Tenjikugoshoja (天竺五精舎)

Tenjikugoshoja is five vihara (monasteries or temples) of early Buddhism in the ancient India. They are also referred to as Tenjikugozan.

Generally, five monasteries indicated by the number Sanzohossu 24 are called Tenjikugoshoja.

This is considered the first monastery constructed in Buddhism. The place was a wealthy person Kalanda 's grove that was first lend to the Jains, but later when Kalanda became a believer of Shakyamuni, it became a Buddhist monastery. With a contribution of King Bimbisara, a temple was constructed there.

Gionshoja (formal name: Gijukikkodokuonshoja)
A wealthy person Sudatta, who had given alms to those who had no kith or kin, bought a woods from Prince Jeta and built a monastery.

Dairinshoja (also known as Double-storied lecture hall, or Mikochishoja)
A lecture hall in a big woods near the lake Mikochi in Vesali in the Central India, which was also used as a monastery to give a sermon--Mikochi was named after Miko, a big monkey, a lot of which lived in the area.

A monastery on Mt. Ryoju (or, Grdhrakuta) in the capital Oshajo (or, Rajagaha) of the country Magadha.

A monastery built in a mango orchard contributed by Amrapali.

"Daichidoron" 3 lists the followings as Tenjikugoshoja:

Saptaparnaguhaa, Nanzan sekishitsu

There is a variation of Tenjikugoshoja or Tenjikugozan as follows:

Nalanda Temple: a temple in the country Magadha. This temple was built after the death of Shakyamuni.

Theses five monasteries are also frequently called Five Monasteris 'Goshoja'. Seitarinshoja was written as '誓多林' or '逝多林' which referred to Gionshoja that was built in the woods once belonged to Prince Jeta, and it made the total of temples four instead of five.

The following five temples are sometimes called Goshoja.
(Sometimes, Rokushimokodo, Pubbarama Migara-matupasada in Sanskrit, substitutes Rokuon (also known as Rokuyaon.)

Rokuon (also known as Rokuyaon)

Five temples in various places

Following suit to the Tenjikugoshoja or Tenjikugozan, what were called 'Shinagozan and Shinajussatsu (five great monasteries and ten temples in China)' were built during the Sung dynasty China, and 'Kamakuragozan (five monasteries in Kamakura),' 'Kyotogozan (five monasteries in Kyoto)', and 'Nihonjussatsu (ten temples in Japan)' were built during the Kamakura period in Japan. Mainly the Zen sect followed this system.

[Original Japanese]