Hataraki-goto (descriptive pieces) (働事)

Hataraki-goto refers to shosa (conduct) that has certain ideographical and representational elements in the parts that consist of performers' shosa and Noh-hayashi (percussion ensemble) in Noh plays.

Similar to mai-goto (instrumental dances), hayashi (musical accompaniment played on traditional Japanese instruments) for hataraki-goto consists of four kinds of musical instruments: nohkan (Japanese Noh flute), kotsuzumi (small hand drum), otsuzumi (big drum), and taiko (stick drum). Compared to mai-goto, hataraki-goto has features that it contains many gallant and vigorous movements on the whole. Though mai-goto is mostly performed by single performer such as the Noh shite (main role) or the tsure, hataraki-goto contains performances by many performers around the shite such as in 'kirikumi' (many samurai killing each other using a blade) and 'tachimawari' (a type of action piece, hataraki in Noh, in which the dancer circles the stage to the left to noncongruent instrumental music, the stick drum may be used in the accompaniment).

Daishomono (a general term of Noh music played with three instruments of fue, a Japanese flute, kozutsumi and ozutsumi, but without taiko)

There are four kinds of hataraki-goto that are played on nohkan, kotsuzumi, and otsuzumi: 'kakeri' (a type of action piece in Noh, hataraki danced about the ghosts of warriors, shura-mono or mad people, kyoran-mono to depict suffering or distraction), 'iroe' (shosa, a conduct of Noh, short dance of the shite, a main role making the circuit of the stage silently before kuse), 'kirikumi,' and 'tachimawari' (also called hataraki and the stick drum is used in some tachimawari). However, we have to be careful when we use these names as they are called in different ways according to traditions or styles and kirikumi is sometimes called kakeri, or kakeri and tachimawari are included in iroe.

In this hataraki-goto, the shite who plays a spirit of busho (Japanese military commander) or a monogurui (mad people) moves round wildly in a state of high emotion and expresses the suffering of Shurado (World of Fighting and Slaughter) ("Yashima" or "Sakuragawa" [Sakura river] in which a heroine wonders about in a frenzy of grief). Usually, it is made up of one act or segment and two melody parts and the tsuzumi player plays noribyoshi (one of three types of Nori, the overall tempo and rhythm of a Noh or Kyogen when referring to in-rhythm chants, onori) and the fue player plays Ashirai (relatively subtle accompaniment). It features sudden slow and rapid changes in movements. For each style or school, the kakeri for "Utou" is a special hataraki-goto and it has more acts.

It is one of hataraki-goto in which the shite makes a circuit of the stage silently before kuse (strongly rhythmic dance from medieval Japan, kuse had an influence on the development of Noh, masked dance-drama form). It has no special ideographical implication and it is treated as an introduction to kuse or mai-goto Ryochukan no ji following it (therefore, it is usually omitted in Maibayashi [an abbreviated style of Noh]). It made up of no act and one melody part and, the tsuzumi player plays noribyoshi and the fue player plays Ashirai. Like in "Kakitsubata" (The Iris, Noh play) or "Sakuragawa," this is often performed by women shite, but some are performed by men shite such as in "Yoroboshi" (The Beggar and His Savior) and this is performed after kuse in "Hana-gatami" (Flower Basket).

It is one of hataraki-goto in which many Hitamen (face without mask) samurais are killing each other using a blade around the Noh shite and the Noh waki and the shite-kata who appear as the Noh shite and the Noh waki play roles of many other enemies and are got slashed to death by the shite and the Noh waki (On Noh stage, performers express getting slashed to death by performing anza [sitting quietly] or Hotokedaore [performance that represents death or falling unconscious] and fades from the stage). It is made up of no act and one melody part and the tsuzumi player plays noribyoshi, the fue player, Ashirai. It is featured in "Shozon" and "Eboshiori," and others, in which many performers appear on the stage and appeal to the eye with resplendent atmosphere.

It is an ideographical shosa performed by the Noh shite or others to the accompaniment of hayashi according to the scene of the music. Unlike other mai-goto and hataraki-goto, there is no fixed pattern of movement but each music has its different movement and, virtually, for classification of hataraki-goto, those that do not fall other categories are gathered together and called collectively tachimawari. Therefore, their expressions vary on music and it is difficult to list common features. There are daisho-tachimaeari ("Kayoi Komachi," "Hyakuman" [A Million, a woman who went crazy with grief when she was separated from her child]) and tachimawari with taiko music ("Yamanba" [Mountain Witch]), and they are usually made up of no act and one melody part or one act and two melody parts, and the tsuzumi player plays noribyoshi and the fue player, Ashirai.

Taikomono (music of Noh with a taiko, a drum)

In hataraki-goto played with nohkan, kotsuzumi, otsuzumi, and taiko, there are 'maibataraki,' 'uchiai-bataraki' (one scene in which the shite, a main role fighting with the tsure or the waki, a supporting role of maibataraki, dance with hayashi), 'inori' (in scenes in which a monk or Yamabushi, the waki uses magic to fend off an crazed witch, shite, inori, or prayer, refers to the movement in which the witch submits to the prayers of the monk or Yamabushi, a movement of the hayashi), and 'tachimawari' (see above). As a general rule, the shite's role is limited to only ones of not human being but 'nonhuman being,' an unearthly things.

It is one of hataraki-goto in which the shite who plays valiantly a role of nonhuman being such as a god, a dragon god, a tengu (a mountain spirit, portrayed as winged and having a long nose), or a kichiku (brute) performs dynamically and powerfully by expressing an numinous power. It is made up of one act and two melody parts or two acts and three melody parts, and the fue and the tsuzumi players both play noribyoshi and the fue player plays the musical score based on Ryochukan no ji. The shite often appears to hayafue (a music to indicate the entrance of a demonic deity, a Japanese flute performs in a dramatic and high tone, with small and large hand drums and a drum) and performs dynamically, but the shite in "Tamanoi" (Tama Well) performs especially slowly and quietly with grace of works or shosa. When Noh kogaki (small script for Noh) of shirogashira (white haired) such as in "Funa Benkei" (Benkei in the Boat) or "Kurama Tengu" is added, the movements in the performance also get slowly.

It especially refers to the scenes in which mainly shite and tsure or waki play one-on-one battle among maibataraki ("Shari" [Noh], "Ryoko" [Noh]). As a hayashi-goto it is almost same as maibataraki but performance tempo and rhythm gets faster.

It is one of scenes of hatraki-goto in which the shite who plays an role of nonhuman being such as an oni (ogre), a vengeful spirit (vindictive ghost), or an evil spirit is prayed to subjugate by a monk or a yamabushi (a mountain priest) and the inori is included only in "Dojo-ji Temple" (Noh), "Aoi no Ue" (Lady Aoi), and "Kurotsuka" ("Hiun" [a Noh piece] is also included according to styles), and may be called inori in the order of shin-gyo-so (formal, semiformal, informal). It is made up of three acts and four melody parts and the tsuzumi player plays noribyoshi, the fue player, Ashirai, and taiko player, special tegumi (the rhythmic patterns of sound combinations of instrument and human voice) called inori-ji.

Hataraki-goto for Kyogen (a comic interlude performed during a Noh program)

There are "maibataraki" and "seme" (a play of Enma, a devil or Oni, an ogre accusing a sinner to the hell) in Daishomono and "kakeri" in Taikomono in Hataraki-goto for Kyogen. Maibataraki is a performance resembling maibataraki in Noh and used for Fukujinmono, pieces of Gods of Good Fortune, such as "Ebisu Daikoku" (Two Happy Gods) or Ozeimono such as "Kasen" (The Six Famous Poets). Seme is a Kyogen-specific hataraki-goto in which an oni in the hell tortures severely the dead people and it is also used as a lesson for act at festival scene in "Uri nusubito" (The Melon Thief) in addition to Oni-Kyogen such as "Asahina" (A Worthy Man). This is a relatively simplified hataraki-goto accompanied mainly by fue. Kakeri is a relatively simple performance of Noh kakeri and used in such as "Natori gawa" (The Name Stealing River). It features no sudden slow and rapid changes in movements.

[Original Japanese]