Heki School (日置流)

Heki school was established by Masatsugu Danjo HEKI, who learned in the ancient Henmi school. Masatsugu Danjo HEKI is said to be a person of the Muromachi period (latter half of the 15th century), however, there are various opinions: some say he was god or Buddha' incarnated; some say he was the same person as the first representative of Heki-Yoshida school Shigetaka Kozukenosuke YOSHIDA. Finally, the theory that he was a fictitious character is persuasive.

Archery in Japan can be classified mainly into 'Busha/Kachiyumi' (walking archery), developed from bow shooting on foot on the battlefield, 'Kisha' (riding archery), developed from bow shooting while riding horseback, and 'Dosha' (long-range archery), developed from Toshiya (long-range archery) passing through the Sanjusangen-do Temple. In a modern classification, the idea that divided archery into busha (archery for battle) and reisha (archery for ceremony) has become the main common practice. When it comes to the busha group, it refers to the Heki school system (in this case, it includes walking archery and long-range archery), and when it comes to the reisha group, it refers to the shooting system developed from Ogasawara school's riding archery and walking archery, but gradually implemented with ceremonial elements. Compared with Ogasawara school with a history of about 900 years, Heki school is new with a history of about 500 years. However, for a certain period of time during the Sengoku period (period of Warring States), instead of the declining Ogasawara family, the Heki-Yoshida school group performed the ceremonial shootings in the Imperial Court.

Pulling the bow in a ceremonial way is generally referred to as 'Reisha' (ceremonial shooting), however, the Heki school called this 'Reisha' of the Ogasawara school 'Taihai' (posture and manner of the martial art) in order to distinguish it. Taihai of the Heki school is characterized by enhanced spirit born from simple gestures resembling those of a samurai.

The Ogasawara school originated from shooting while riding and emphasizes chiefly beauty and elegance, on the contrary, the Heki school is practical archery for infantrymen which places emphasis on target accuracy and the penetrating power of an arrow.

Nowadays, they are both categorized as competitive game 'Archery,' though, there are a small number of archers who thoroughly understand the difference between 'walking archery,' 'riding archery,' and 'long-range archery,' the purposes of which were originally different. Moreover, today, the fence separating the Heki school, the Ogasawara school, and the Dosha group of the Heki school, has lowered. However, because the development processes are respectively different, it is hoped that students of archery will pay respect to and understand well the cultural and historical backgrounds of the Heki school (busha group) and the Ogasawara school (reisha group).

For the Heki school, there are a lot of sects, including both the discontinued ones and the existing ones; traditionally, the 'school' has been referring to 'a system of unified styles from a family or master who passed down their teachings,' that is, there may be minor differences caused from discrepancies in interpretation of the teachings, however teaching that forms the foundation of any sect is basically the same.

Shooting method

In many cases of Ogasawara school, there are facing postures for shooting at a distance, that is, the so-called 'Shomen-uchiokoshi' (anchoring in front facing posture) is taught; on the contrary, the Heki school teaches 'Shamen-uchiokoshi' (anchoring in a slanted position).
(Except for the Honda school)

Heki school teaches the shooting method of 'Shamen-uchiokoshi' (anchoring in a slanted position) because it has peculiar teaching about how to grip the bow, also the purpose is to increase the chance of hitting the target and the penetrating rate when the arrow is shot. For instance, in the Insai school, the way to grip the bow is called 'Momiji-gasane;' a method of gripping the bow with the left hand secretly handed down from the old days. Moreover, since this way allows the archer to shoot the enemy immediately by employing this body pose on the battlefield, it is advantageous for the archer anchored in the frontal facing posture, to set up the bow.

Usually in the Japanese bow, regardless of the archer's dominant hand, is pushed by the left hand and the bowstring is pulled by the right hand.

It is thought that, this facilitates the training of archers in group, and because of the unified standards, bow and arrows, could be mass-produced.

As a starting point for samurai who in fact engage in combat on the battlefield, the Heki school has contributed much to the refining archery techniques.

The founder of the Heki school is said to be Masatsugu Danjo HEKI (date of birth and death unknown), who is described as 'the founder of restored archery in my country Japan' in "Honcho Bugei Shoden" (a survey of traditional Japanese martial arts). Danjo HEKI is said to be a person of Yamato during the mid Muromachi period (latter half of the 15th century). There are many uncertainties about him: some says he was a real existing person; some says he is fictitious; some say he is the same person as Shigekata YOSHIDA of the Yoshida school. It was called god and Buddha' incarnations. One of the best pupils of Danjo HEKI was Shigekata YOSHIDA; thereafter, the teachings were chiefly succeeded to the Yoshida clan, and it was also known as the Yoshida style, however now, except for a certain segment, it is often called the Heki school.

It is said that, Shigekata YOSHIDA (also called Tarozaemon, Kozukenosuke, Izumo no kami (chief of Izumo Province), his title was Doho)(1463 - 1543) was a retainer of the Rokkaku clan which was a daimyo of the Minami Omi region during the Sengoku Period, and it is also said that Shigekata YOSHIDA based his activities around Kawamori Castle (present day Kawamori, Ryuo-cho).

Like the Rokkaku clan, which is the main family, the Yoshida clan is a clan of Omi-Genji (the Minamoto clan) (the Sasaki clan); it starts from Genshu, the younger brother of Sadatsuna SASAKI, who was following MINAMOTO no Yoritomo taking an active part. Omi-Yoshida-sho, or, it is said that the family name is Izumo-Yoshida-mura. The Yoshida clan was also under the Amago clan (branch family of the Sasaki clan), which was a feudal lord (daimyo) of Sanin during the provincial wars; it is said to be the same clan.

In the family tree of the Yoshida clan (submitted by a direct retainer of the shogun Insai school soke - head of the Insai school) of Kansei-Choshu-Shokafu (genealogies of vassals in the Edo Bakufu) edited during late Edo period, concerning the origin, it was written, 'Uda-Genji (Minamoto clan), an illegitimate family lineage of the Sasaki family. According to present's accepted genealogy, it is said to be from Genshu YOSHIDA.'
Concerning Shigetaka, it is written, 'A certain Izumo no kami (chief of Izumo Province). According to present's accepted genealogy, Tarozaemon Shimotsuke no kami Shigemasa.
He belongs to the Sasaki family and is one of the Kika Nananin (seven major influencing disciples)
He followed Toyohide Danjo HEKI and studied the Shagei (technique of archery). Although there were many disciples of Toyohide, only Izumo no kami succeeded the private handed-down techniques of Toyohide's family because of his excellence. After that, people called them Yoshida school. The techniques are taught from generation to generation to the descendants.
Buddhist name is Doho.'
It was recorded like this. (Toyohide is another name of Masatsugu Danjo HEKI.
Is Shigemasa a misprint of Shigetaka?
People of the Yoshida clan like Shigetaka have a lot of other names.)

His the only son Shigemasa (1484 - 1569) (Sukezaemon, Izumo no kami (chief of Izumo Province), his title was Ichio) who succeeded after Shigetaka.

During the years of Emperor Tenbun, Shigemasa was requested by Yoshikata ROKKAKU to teach his family secret techniques, but he refused and put him under the protection of the Asakura clan of Echizen. They settled peacefully then and he returned to Omi, and Shigemasa adopted Yoshikata as his son and taught him the family secret techniques.

It is said that at this period of trouble, Shigemasa was afraid that his family secret techniques might be lost, so he taught them to their fourth son Shigekatsu and sent him to Kyoto. This system of Shigekatsu was called the Sekka school (Snow Lotus sect). The manual of secret techniques was returned to Shigemasa's only son Shigetaka by Yoshikata, so the family manual was again being handed down in the Yoshida clan. This system is called Izumo school.

Thereafter, the Izumo school spun off a lot of sub-schools; the spin-off sects were so numerous that, together with Dosetsu school (which is a spin-off from the Sekka school), they were called Kyu-ryu Juppa (nine schools, ten sects). Moreover, at this time, the Chikurin school (Bamboo Forest school), whose founder was Josei Chikurinbo ISHIDO, was established. It is also said that Josei, a student of Shigemasa and Masatsugu Danjo HEKI were related to the origin of another Noritsugu Yazaemon HEKI. The history of Heki school and various sects is as follows.

The influence of the Heki school has been tremendous, thereafter almost all the archery depended on it. Moreover, although there were many archery sects with various names established after the Heki school, most of these are related to the system of the Heki school. During the Edo period, each domain employed its own grand master of archery, however, they were mostly archers from the Heki school.

Various sects
There are various opinions about how the sects were spun off, according to some representative theories, some sects are as follows:

Yamato-Heki school group
A sect founded by Shigekata YOSHIDA, a student of Masatsugu Danjo HEKI. Since it had been handed down in the Yoshida family from generation to generation, it is also called the Yoshida school.

Izumo school
The only son of Shigemasa YOSHIDA, Shigetaka YOSHIDA (Sukezaemon, Izumo no kami (chief of Izumo Province), his title was Roteki) (1508 - 1585) was the founder.

As for the above-mentioned details, the family secret manual of the Yoshida clan was handed down to master Yoshikata ROKKAKU, but Yoshikata returned it to Shigetaka. After Yoshikata, it was succeeded to descendants of the Sukezaemon family, from the generations of juryomei (acceptance name) after Shigekata, it was called the Izumo school. Although this is the legitimate system of the Yoshida family, there are also opinions that technically, it is mainly a Sekka school.

Shigetaka's only son Shigetsuna (Sukezaemon, his title was Kao, Kao or Doshun) (1554 - 1582) passed away (before his father) at the age of 28. According to "Meiryo-kohan historical records," because Shigetsuna's only son Toyotaka was too young, the information had been entrusted to the son-in-law Shigeuji YOSHIDA (Insai school so - founder of Insai school). However, it is said there was a quarrel because the manual was not returned to Toyotaka after he grew up.

Toyotaka later served Masatsugu ABE, who was the lord of the Iwatsuki Domain. The descendants also served the Abe clan from generation to generation, with the changing the territory, they were transferred to the domain of Bingo-Fukuyama, and they even served as Karo (chief retainers). The system of techniques was passed down until the Meiji era; the clan chief Toyotoki during the late Edo era, besides serving the clan chiefs after Masahiro ABE as a teacher, he also served as administrator, and Seishikan Monbu Sosai (literary and military arts president of Seishikan, school of the Fukuyama domain) of schools in the feudal domains.

Besides Fukuyama, it also spread to the branch family of the Abe clan (domain of Kariya, domain of Sanuki) and domain of Yonezawa.

From the students of Shigetaka, it ramified to the Yamashina school, Sakonemon, and Daishin school, and from the students of Shigetsuna, it ramified to Jutoku school, and Insai school.

Yamashina school
Shigetaka YOSHIDA's student Ietsugu KATAOKA (Heiemon) and his grandson Iekiyo KATAOKA(Sukemon) are assumed to be the originators.

After Shigetaka's death, Ietsugu assisted his third son Narishige (founder of Sakonemon school). His son Ienobu (Heiemon) also studied the techniques under Shigeuji (Okura school) and others. The second son Ienkiyo, who was the son-in-law of Narishige's only son Shigetake, studied under Shigeuji. Like this, the Kataoka family was closely associated with the descendants of Narishige, and it is said that the documents handed-down were also similar in that they were from the Yamashina school and Okura school. "Honcho Bugei Shoden" (a survey of traditional Japanese martial arts) regards Iekiyo as the originator of the Yamashina school.

Sakonemon school
Shigetaka YOSHIDA's third son Narishige YOSHIDA (Sakonemon) was regarded as the originator.

It is said that Narishige studied under his father and Ietsugu KATAOKA, and afterwards under Shigekatsu (Sekka). He first served Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI, and then served Toshiie MAEDA. His descendants also handed down the techniques and served the domains of Kaga and Toyama. This system was later called Sakon school.

Okura school
Narishige YOSHIDA's third son Shigeuji (Okura) YOSHIDA (1578 - 1644) is regarded as the originator.

Shigeuji studied under his father, first served Nobutaka TOMITA and then Toshitsune MAEDA. He established distinguished credit during the Osaka no Jin (The Siege of Osaka) and was granted 1400 Goku (crop yields). He tried seven arrows at the Sanjusangen-do Temple, and won six times tenkaichi (Japan's No. 1). He brought honor and glory to the Kaga Domain.

Insai school
Shigetsuna YOSHIDA (Narishige's student), Shigeuji YOSHIDA (Genpachiro, former surname: Kuzumaki, his title was Issui/Isumi, his Buddhist name was Insai, Issui/Isumi ken Insai) (1562 - April 17, 1638) are regarded as the originators. Shigeuji was born in Kuzumaki-mura, Gamo-gun, Omi Province (present's Higashiomi City, Shiga Prefecture) (Kawamori, the base of the Yoshida clan, was in the neighborhood). It is said that he was from the Kuzumaki clan, became Shigetsuna YOSHIDA (Izumo school)'s adopted son, and married his daughter (rumors also says he was a close relative of the Yoshida clan). Afterwards, he was on bad terms with his foster father and he studied under Narishige YOSHIDA (Sakonemon school). He served Hidetsugu TOYOTOMI, Hideyasu YUKI and Tadamasa MATSUDAIRA, then he paid visits to Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, Hidetada TOKUGAWA and Iemitsu TOKUGAWA.

His only son Shigenobu (Kyumanosuke) became a direct retainer of the shogun and the family archery instructor for Iemitsu and others. His archery school became well-spread to various places such as Edo, Okayama Domain, Satsuma Domain, the Enshu region, and Fukui Domain. Only the Insai school in Edo and the Okayama Domain are called the "Heki-to school". Thus, Masatsugu Danjo HEKI's doctrine of archery was handed down from generation to generation by the only one blood-linked successor of Masatsugu Danjo HEKI, or one student without any blood relationship who was granted Menkyo-kaiden (full proficiency). The successor (in other words, Soke or grand master) of the Insai school in a certain region of a certain generation could only be one person. However, there were sometimes more than one person who could receive Menkyo-kaiden (full proficiency).

A part of the Insai school was called "Toryu" (meaning sect for the Shogunate family) because the grant master of Edo-Insai school was teaching archery for Tokugawa Shogunate family. Moreover, the reason why the Insai school of Okayama Domain was called "Toryu" is that, when the shogun at that time competed with Ikeda-ko (daimyo IKEDA) in an archery match, Ikeda-ko won, then Ikeda-ko requested to be also called "Toryu" and the shogun allowed his request.

Insai school is 'walking archery,' shooting method for walking troops (walking warriors) on the battle field; originally, it was different from the Ogasawara school, which is 'horseback riding archery,' shooting from horseback. For the Insai school's original shooting method, a body pose of 'opening knees' with one knee standing was adopted to pull the bow, while the body is hidden to avoid the arrow shot by the enemy on the battlefield, the body can readily be raised momentarily to shoot an enemy, so, it is very practical.

In modern days, 'open knees' is assumed to be the practice stage, and the body pose of 'Rissha' (standing shoot), that pulls the bow while standing, is the general position.

In the doctrine of the Insai school, the highest levels of practice are Kan, Chu, and Kyu.

Kan' (Penetration) is a strong penetrating power that can pass through enemy's armor; 'Chu' (Precision) is a hit rate of 100 hits out of 100 shots; 'Kyu' (Persistence) means 'Kan' and 'Chu' can be persistently maintained. In other words, the Insai school teaches a shooting method conceived during an era when powerful bows and arrows were used and by walking warriors who fight on the battlefield to kill the enemy, as the name suggests, it is extremely practical and reasonable.

In modern archery, since emphasis is put on Tekichu-shugi (hitting the target), penetration is valued less; nowadays, the praising order is 'Precision, Penetration and Persistenc', however, the praising order should be 'Penetration, Precision and Persistence' originally.

About doctrine of the shooting method in the Insai school, the University of Tsukuba (formerly Tokyo University of Education) is conducting research about it from a medical and physical viewpoint; concerning the contents of the doctrine, there has been nothing discovered at all that can be denied from a scientific viewpoint, rather, it has been proven that this ancient doctrine based on battlefield experiences is extremely reasonable and scientific.

The target, called "Hekigasumi," has a peculiar pattern (supposed to be like a human body), and even in the case when there are multiple players shooting, originally only one target is formally set. The purpose is to shoot down for sure the person standing out first when confronting an enemy group, in order to destroy the enemy's fighting spirit.

Moreover, even if you miss, a missed arrow that hit in front of one's feet appears more frightening to the enemy than a missed arrow that flies over one's head, thus, the target was set up in a low place on the ground for practice.

It is assumed that the size of a short distance target is the width of a human body. Therefore, it is assumed that rather than missing the target vertically, missing the target horizontally is to be avoided.

Moreover, the target is set up about 28m away, which is assumed to be the enemy's position on the battlefield. This is about the shortest distance unreachable by a spear for a direct long distance attack.

Even nowadays, we learn from these, for a short distance target, regardless of the sect, a target 36cm in diameter is generally set up at a low position 28m away.

The Urakami group, founded by Naoki URAKAMI who received his masters during the early Meiji period from Bunemon TOKUYAMA, adopted a move called 'Sambun-no-ni' (the string two-thirds drawn), and now, it bases its activities around Kanto area. When executing 'Sambun-no-ni' the arrow is held without moving momentarily when the arrow is positioned around the level of the eyebrow during 'Uchiokoshi' (anchoring) to the move of 'Hikiwake' (drawing).
However, there are still examples of situations where the ancient Insai school doesn't employ 'Sambun-no-ni.'

Even within the Insai school, the teachings of Satsuma-Heki, Bizen-Heki, and the Enshu group can be traced back in detail genealogically.

Famous archers include Sakae URAKAMI (Hanshi Judan - tenth grade of the highest ranked archers), who is shaho-seitei-iin (Archery Constitution Committee Member) and an editor of textbooks on archery; Hisashi MURAKAMI (Hanshi Judan - tenth grade of the highest ranked archers), who is vice-president of All Nippon Kyudo Federation; Genshiro INAGAKI (Hanshi Kyudan - ninth grade of the highest ranked archers), who is a professor at Tokyo University of Education and an instructor for the Budo Federation of Germany.

Daishin school
Shigetaka YOSHIDA's student Hidetsugu TANAKA (title: Daishin) is regarded as the originator. Hidetsugu is a person from Kyoto.

Jutoku school
Shigetsuna YOSHIDA's student Jutoku KIMURA is regarded as the originator.

Jutoku was from Katata, Omi Province and originally claimed to have come from the Ikai clan.

Sekka school (Snow Lotus sect)
Shigemasa YOSHIDA's fourth son (controversial) Shigekatsu YOSHIDA (Rokuzaemon, title: Sekka) (1514 - 1590) is regarded as the originator.

As mentioned above, since there was trouble concerning the family secret techniques between the Yoshida clan and the lord Yoshikata ROKKAKU, Shigemasa was afraid that his family secret techniques might become lost, so he taught the doctrines to Sekka and sent him to Kyoto.

Although Sekka did not enter government service, it is said that he was associated with many warlords. He was an intimate friend of Yusai HOSOKAWA; besides teaching him archery, it is said that he learnt Kojitsu (ancient customs) and rules of decorum from Yusai's follower Hidekiyo (Shosai) OGASAWARA, who was an authority of ancient customs. He passed away in 1590 at the age of 77, in Tanabe, Tango Province, which was within the territory of the Hosokawa clan.

His descendants served the Todo clan (chief of the Tsu Domain) (his salary was 600 Koku of rice); from generation to generation, they claimed to be Rokuzaemon and handed down their techniques through only one student (Yuiju Ichinin, to succeed everything that the master knows about the art to only one excellent disciple). It was cordially protected in the domain of Tsu and its traditions have been handed down and spread until recent years. Besides spreading to the domain of Sendai and the domain of Aizu, etc., it spun off the Dosetsu school. Among those who had received their masters from Sekka, there were warlords such as Yusai HOSOKAWA, Ujisato GAMO, Hidenaga TOYOTOMI, and Hideie UKITA.

Dosetsu school
Shigekatsu YOSHIDA (Sekka)'s student Ichian BAN (Kizaemon, title: Dosetsu) (passed away in 1621) is regarded as the originator.

Dosetsu was originally a low-ranked monk in Kennin-ji Temple, later he served Yusai HOSOKAWA. Since Dosetsu was the most excellent disciple, Sekka tried to have him succeeded the doctrines, but Dosetsu firmly refused, wished to establish another sect and got permission to do so. Besides serving the Koriyama Domain, the descendants of Dosetsu, they also taught for the Takatsuki Domain, the Aizu Domain, the Hiroshima Domain, and the Kumamoto Domain, etc.

Dosetsu practiced the long-range archery of Sanjusangen-do Temple with a neya (arrow having a heavy arrowhead that is in fact used on the battlefield. Doesn't fly far because it is heavy) during the rule of Emperor Tensho. (arrow having a heavy arrowhead that is actually used on the battlefield. Doesn't fly far because it is heavy) during the rule of Emperor Tensho.
This became the origin of the following 'Neyasuu.'
Dosetsu's disciples left a lot of records on the initial long-range archery.

Group under the Iga-Heki school
Noritsugu Yazaemon HEKI, who was blood-related to Masatsugu Danjo HEKI and received the doctrines, is regarded as the originator.

Chikurin school (Bamboo Forest School)
Josei Chikurinbo ISHIDO is regarded as the originator. The family name is said to be Kitamura (北村), Kitamura (喜多村) or Sekito. Sometimes, it is also called the Chikurin school. When Josei first became a monk, he lived in Omi with the title of Chikurinbo. He heard about Shigemasa YOSHIDA's techniques and became the private prayer monk of the Yoshida family, and he was absorbed in archery training.
On the other hand, in some documentary records of the Chikurin school (Bamboo Forest School):

Noritsugu Yazaemon HEKI - Yoshitsugu Sakon YASUMATSU - Yoshikiyo Shinzaburo YASUMATSU - Masatsugu Jinzaemon YUGE - Shitetsugu Yarokuro YUGE - Josei Chikurinbo ISHIDO (the names are controversial). This genealogy is written, however, there are a lot of uncertainties before Josei. It is said that Josei later served Tadayoshi MATSUDAIRA (the lord of Kiyosu Domain) and taught the feudal soldiers. His second son Sadatsugu (Yazo) taught the techniques and continued to prosper even after the Owari Domain formed. His descendants served the Koriyama Domain.
(Seito-Chikurin school)

Among the famous disciples of Sadatsugu, were Tadatsugu OKABE (Tozaemon) (feudal soldier of Owari domain), Tadahisa NAGAYA (Tadazaemon) and Tadashige (Rokuzaemon), moreover, among the famous disciples of Tadashige, there was Shigenori HOSHINO (Kanzaemon), who was highly reputed for his long-range archery skills in the Kyoto Sanjusangen-do Temple; they handed down the techniques from generation to generation. These schools in Owari belong to the Bishu-Chikurin group.

Moreover, Sadatsugu's disciples Katsukichi (Kizaemon) NOMURA and Shigenao (Yojiemon/Yojiuemon) KAWARABAYASHI (OBAYASHI) taught Chikurin school techniques to the Kishu Domain. There were famous masters such as Noritake YOSHIMI (Daiemon, posthumous Buddhist name: Junsei), who was the author of "Shahokun" (textbook how to shoot an arrow), and Norito WASA (Daihachiro), who was Toshiya-tenkaichi (No. 1 in Japan for long-range archery). This is the Kishu-Chikurin group of schools.

It spread to a lot of domains such as the Takamatsu and Kumamoto Domains. The school spread to Edo from Shigenori HOSHINO and was handed down to direct retainers of shoguns as the Edo Chikurin school, later, it became the Honda school.

Long-range archery is also called Dosha. It became popular in early Edo period; especially after the Owari Domain and the Kii Domain engaged in fierce competition, Chikurin school in both domains became prosperous. Moreover, in order to break the record, research on shooting methods and tools, and improvements were continuing. Likewise, the Chikurin school is closely related to Dosha, since it has Matomae-shaho (the action to shoot an arrow to the target) and is a sub-sect that forbids long range archery. Because Josei was a monk, the influence of the Buddhism can be seen in the thought and terminologies of the Chikurin school. For instance, even in the presence Kyudo-shaho Hassetsu (the eight arts of shooting an arrow), the adopted terms such as 'E' (concentration at full draw) and 'Ri' (release) are related to the Buddhist expression "Esha-Jori" (meaning that those who meet must part).

Ikkan school
Ikkan Matabe ONO (passed away at the age of 63 in 1816) is regarded as the originator. Ikkan was a warrior of the Wakasa Domain of the Tottori Domain (branch domain of Tottori, domain of Tottori Nishikan Nitta) (his salary was 130 koku of rice), and he studied under Shiseki OGUCHI of the Oguchi school, belonging to the Chikurin school group. He established the Ikkan school, which teaches also sword, spear, and Iai-jutsu (technique of drawing real swords).

Honda school

Toshizane HONDA (1836 - 1917) of the Chikurin school is regarded as the originator. It was established during the Meiji and Taisho eras. Since it belongs to the group of Heki schools, Shomen-uchiokoshi (anchoring in front facing posture) is a characteristic. By introducing various modifications such as Shamen-uchiokoshi (anchoring in a slanting position) into Chikurin school, which is Shomen-uchiokoshi (anchoring in front facing posture), Toshizane improved the shooting method and brought about a major impact to modern archery.

Heki school nowadays
Yamashina school, Okura school
Yoshida group of Heki school popular in Kumamoto Prefecture is a sect related to the schools of Okura YOSHIDA, Ienobu KATAOKA and Iekiyo.

Sakonemon school, Daishin school, and the Jutoku school
No activity at present.

Insai school
In Kagoshima Prefecture, Satsuma-Heki was popular; in Okayama Prefecture during the Edo period, Bizen-Heki was taught to the Tokuyama family iat the teachers' house of the Hekito school. The Urakami group, which belongs to schoolof Bizen-Heki, is popular mainly in Kanto. The Urakami group, which belongs to schoolof Bizen-Heki, is popular mainly in Kanto. The main active groups include Tokuyama Shika Dojo (training hall of Tokuyama, teachers' house), Tokuyama Seishakai, Urakami Domonkai, archery laboratory of the University of Tsukuba, Sakura-isshakai (archery circle), Issuikai, Satsuma Heki-ryu Koshiya Hozonkai (Preservation Society of Koshiya - archery for battle where a group of archers shoot under the command of a general - of the Heki school in Satsuma). Moreover, the Heki-ryu Insai-ha Shionosaki Onkyu Hozonkai (Preservation Society of archery in Shionosaki, founded by Issuiken's student Yoshishige INABA) is active in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture, and the Enshu group of Seibe KAMIMURA group is active in the training hall within the premises of Kusanagi-jinja Shrine, Shizuoka, and Settsu-kei Domonkai (Fellow Association of Settsu group) is active in Kawanishi City, Hyogo Prefecture. University archery clubs related to archery schools include Waseda University, Hosei University, Tsukuba University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ochanomizu University, Kansai University, Okayama University, Kyoto University, Osaka City University, Osaka Sangyo University, Department of Engineering at Tohoku Gakuin University, etc.

Sekka school
It spread to the Tokai region etc. In the Tokai region, besides being popular among the samurai, archery is also popular among Shoya (village headman) and in the Nanushi hierarchy (village headman); even now, it is preserved in the form of the so-called 'Omatsuri-yumi' (archery for the festival), which is related to festivals in the Shinto shrine.

Dosetsu school
In Kumamoto Prefecture, a group with an existing originator is handing down its doctrines. In Fujisakihachiman-gu Shrine, there are events such as the Shasaru-matsuri (Shooting Festival).

Chikurin school
In Aichi Prefecture, there are schools such as Hoshino group of Bishu-Chikurin group, and Okabe group, and in Kumamoto Prefecture, Higo-Chikurin school is being succeeded. Higo-Chikurin school was temporarily discontinued after the Imperial restoration, however, it was later inherited by the family of karo (chief retainer of daimyo - Japanese territorial lord) of the former Kumamoto Domain by the Matsui clan, which was the eighth owner of the castle, and it has succeeded from generation to generation up to the present time. University archery clubs related to the archery schools include Ryukoku University, Doshisha University, Nagoya University, Kagawa University, etc. Kwansei Gakuin University of Honda school also teaches the traditional doctrines of Ishido-Chikurin school (group of the Takamatsu Domain).

Ikkan school
The Soke or grand master no longer exists, however, in Tottori Prefecture, Ikkan-ryu hozon kai (Preservation society of Ikkan school) is still active.

Honda school
The Seikyukai Foundation has active branch associations in various places. It is particularly active in Kanto. At present, Toshinaga HONDA is the fourth soke (grand master). University archery clubs related to the archery schools include the University of Tokyo, Kokugakuin University, Gakushuin University, Tokyo University of Science, and Kwansei Gakuin University, etc.

[Original Japanese]