Kuratsukuri no Tori (鞍作止利)
KURATSUKURI no Tori was a busshi (sculptor of Buddhist Statues) of the naturalized citizen group who was active in the Asuka period. 鞍作止利 (KURATSUKURI no Tori) was also written as 鞍作鳥, and he was also called Tori busshi. His representative work is the bronze statues of Shaka Sanzon (Shakyamuni triads) made in 623 which is the honzon (principal object of worship) of the Horyu-ji Temple's Kondo (the Golden Pavilion). His grandfather was Datto (or Tatto) SHIBA, a traijin (people from overseas, especially from China and Korea, who settled in early Japan and introduced Continental culture to the Japanese). The seated statue of Shaka Nyorai (Shakyamuni) (the Asuka-daibutsu), which is the honzon of Ango-in (Asuka-dera Temple), is also considered to have been made by Tori. However, only the upper half of the head, the left ear and a part of a finger of the left hand are considered to be the original portion as it was repaired extremely in later ages. Other Buddhist Statues of the same lineage called 'Tori-Shiki' (Tori style) exist in the Horyu-ji Temple and so on. The distinctions of the statues by Tori or in the Tori-Shiki are the ancient Emon (clothes), dress code system, the almond-shaped eyes and the ancient smile (the archaic smile) which were affected by the style of Buddhist Statues of Chinese Northern Wei.