Emperor Sakuramachi (桜町天皇)
Emperor Sakuramachi (February 8, 1720 - May 28, 1750), the 115th Emperor, reigned during the Edo period (from April 13, 1735 to June 9, 1747). His name from childhood was Wakamiya, and his personal name was Teruhito.
Brief Personal History
In 1728 he became the crown prince, and in 1735 he ascended the throne after his father passed it to him. He had the help and support of the Seii Taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians"), Yoshimune TOKUGAWA, and the chancellor (chief adviser to the Emperor), Kaneka ICHIJO, and accordingly he endeavored to restore the events of the Imperial Palace, such as the Great Thanksgiving Service (after the Emperor's enthronement), or other events such as the Harvest Festival and Hohen shi (an imperial messenger to a Shinto shrine). Additionally, he called himself 'The Great Japanese Emperor, Imperial Prince Teruhito,' so it is presumed that he tried to improve the status of the Emperor by restoring the Court Council.
In 1747, he abdicated and passed the throne to Emperor Momozono and started a cloister government; however, he died of heart failure due to the beriberi disease (1750). There is a theory that the Emperor abdicated under pressure from the government after the publication of "Modern Japanese History," by Soho TOKUTOMI; however, it is considered that after his abdication, he aimed to focus on ruling the cloister government without pressure from the government, doing so by actively promoting political and academic programs. However, he only had three years in power, which wasn't sufficient to rule the cloister government in fulfillment of his goal.
According to "Okina gusa," by Teikan KANZAWA, the Emperor was called the return of Shotoku Taishi (Prince Shotoku), since they had similarities such as a New Year's birthday and there was a fire on the day of birth, or that they both achieved a lot in politics; moreover, the famous historian and court noble, Motomitsu YANAGIHARA, referred to the Emperor as 'the first Saint Emperor since the peaceful era of Engi and Tenryaku.'
He was a talented poet as he received teachings of Kokinshu (Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern) from Mitsuhide KARASUMARU; his poems are edited in "Collection of Tanka Poetry by the Retired Emperor Sakuramachi" and "Sakuramachiin bochu onkai waka." Additionally, the Emperor edited and completed "Tozui Ruidai," the poetry collection of his great grandfather, the Emperor Reigen.
He was also a talented painter, and his artwork titled 'Portrait of Sanekage MUSHANOKOJI,' housed at the Tokyo National Museum, is designated as an art treasure.
Eras during his reign
Kyoho (June 22, 1716 - April 28, 1736)
Genbun (April 28, 1736 - February 27, 1741)
Enkyo (February 21, 1744 - July 12, 1748)
Posthumous name, Tsuigo, a different name
The Tsuigo (a posthumous title) of Sakuramachiin came from Sakuramachi dono, which was the palace of Sento Gosho (a palace for an retired emperor).