The Itsutsujinomiya family (五辻宮)

The Itsutsujinomiya family is one of the households of Imperial princes that existed in the late Kamakura Period to the early Southern and Northern Court period. The household of the Imperial prince was embroiled in conflicts between Jimyoin-to (imperial lineage from Emperor Gofukakusa to Emperor Gokomatsu) and Daikakuji-to (imperial lineage starting with Emperor Kameyama), and the intervention of Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun).

The name of the household was derived from the residence of the founder, Imperial Prince Moriyoshi inherited from his maternal grandfather FUJIWARA no Sanehito located at Kamigyo Itsutsuji (today's Kamigyo Ward, Kyoto City.)

The 1st generation and founder of the household is the 5th prince of Emperor Kameyama, Imperial Prince Moriyoshi, however, his estates were forced to be given, not to his biological son, but to the son (latter day Fukakusanomiya) of Imperial Prince Hisaaki (Jimyoin-to) by intervention of Kamakura bakufu. In the meantime, Imperial Prince Moriyoshi and his biological son also called themselves 'Itsutsujinomiya,' there were two 'Itsutsuji nomiya families' at the same time. It is a singular event in history other than the Kuninomiya family that existed from the Meiji to the Showa Period.

As aforementioned, Imperial Prince Moriyoshi was obliged to give his residence to the person who was not his biological son due to intervention of Kamakura bakufu. It is thought this happened because the shogun of the time, Imperial Prince Morikuni and Fukakusanomiya (Imperial Prince Hiroaki) were brothers and the transfer was thought not to be the wish of Imperial Prince Moriyoshi. Later, although the background is unclear, it seems that only the residence, Itsutsuji no yakata (house) was returned to Imperial Prince Moriyoshi, and the prince of Imperial Prince Moriyoshi Sokaku later donated the residence to Daikaku-ji Temple. Though Sokaku was also called 'Itsutsujinomiya,' the descendants, etc. after him are unknown. A 'Itsutsujinomiya' who was dispatched to Kyushu by Emperor Godaigo is thought not to be from this line, however, details are not known.

Fukakusanomiya who became the 2nd Itsutsujinomiya by intervention of the Kamankura bakufu received Shoryo Ando (act of providing authorization for land ownership and guaranteeing feudal tenure) of Itsutsuji no yakata and the domain at Kusakabe-go, Bizen Province by Moritoki HOJO in September 1329, however, only Itsutsuji no yakata was returned to the ex-owner, the Imperial Prince Moriyoshi. When the Kenmu Restoration failed, he received Shoryo Ando from Takauji ASHIKAGA in August 1336.

Although the house of the grandson of Imperial Prince Hisaaki, Shoeki is called 'the Itsutsujinomiya Imperial family' (in the book "Tenryuji Jusho Mokuroku") around 1367, there are no records left indicating that either Fukakusanomiya or Shoeki were given the title of Imperial Prince.

After that, it seemed the family's prosperity gradually declined and a person named 'Itsutsuji-nyudo-nomiya' (Imperial Prince and Monk Itsutsuji) visited Imperial Prince Fushiminomiya Sadafusa's place and asked him for a domain in Kyushu in 1432.
An entry on September 25, 1432 of the "Kanmon Nikki" (Diary of Imperial Prince Fushiminomiya Sadafusa) says that so Gosukoin (other name of Imperial Prince Fushiminomiya Sadafusa) wrote a cover letter to the Ouchi clan, and further gave the henki (to give one kanji character of a noble man's name whose name has 2 kanjis to a person-derived from an old Chinese superstition) to the son of the visiting prince and named him 'Narihiro.'
After that, 'Itsutsuji-nyudo-nomiya' and Narihiro went to Kyushu with the cover letter. What happened to the father and son thereafter is unknown.

[Original Japanese]