Tomokuyu or Yunomura (湯沐邑)

Tomokuyu or Yunomura was a territory which was given to a part of the Imperial Family in the ancient China and Japan from the Asuka period to the Heian period. Its actual condition differed significantly depending on countries and times.

Tomokuyu in the Zhou period

Tomokuyu began as a system in Zhou. It first appeared in an article of "March, three years of the Inko era" in "Shunju Kuyo-den" (Annotation of Gongyang on Spring and Autumn Annals). In the article, Hei is said to be Zheng's Tomokuyu and there is an explanation about Tomokuyu. According to the article, when the Emperor enshrined Mt.Tai, all lords went there and joined the ceremony. At that time, all of them had Yu (people and the land) for Tomoku (bathing and preparation for the sacred ceremony). The volume about a system of monarchy in "Raiki" (Book of Rites) also said that when heads of lords presented themselves to the Emperor, all of them had Yu for Tomoku in the Emperor's country. Both Tomokuyu were for purifying and preparing for the event in name, but virtually they were given to lords, their attendants, and their messengers, who came from far away, for providing them with things they needed to stay.

Tomokuyu in the Warring States period and the age of the Han dynasty

In the Warring States period (in China), Tomokuyu came to mean a territory given by a monarch. It is mentioned that Gi Muki (Shinryokun) was given Ko as Tomokuyu by the king of Zhao in Shinryokun's biography in Shiki (the Chinese Historical Records).

When the Emperor of Gaozu Liu Bang of the Former Han took the throne, he said "At first, I was named Haiko, then I defeated tyranny, and finally I came to power." and he made Hai, where he raised an army, his own Tomokuyu to reduce taxes and labor service. This was the only example of the Emperor's own Tomokuyu, and after that the Imperial Family was given Tomokuyu.

In the age of the Former and Later Han, Tomokuyu was given to a crown prince, the Empress, the Empress Dowager, a retired king, a retired princess, a king, a princess, and the Empress' real mother. Prince was said to have ten countries as Tomokuyu under the old system in the Hanryu's biography in "Gokanjo" (historical records of the Later Han Dynasty). The number of Tomokuyu might have been increased later, and "Kankyugi" (a book of traditional ceremonies and systems) says that the Empress and the Prince got 40 countries each and called them Tomokuyu. The Imperial son in Han usually became lords and king to reign his territory, and other Imperial Family was given Tomokuyu. An owner of Tomokuyu didn't have sovereignty and only got tax income. This is why only the Imperial daughters and retired kings could get Tomokuyu.

Tajibe of Tomokuyu

The oldest reference to an example of Tomokuyu was in "Shinsen Shojiroku" (Newly Compiled Register of Clan Names and Titles of Nobility) composed in the Heian period, saying "Tajibe (people who are privately owned by the Emperor and in charge of education for the Prince) was set in various districts to be Prince's Tomokuyu." That Prince was later Emperor Hanzei. The Tajihi family is said to have begun with a man who supervised Tajibe and named himself Tajihi no muraji (a hereditary title). However this does not prove that Tomokuyu existed in the 5th century, and it seems that the name of Nashiro and Koshiro were changed to Tomokuyu to adapt to a system in the Heian period.

Tomokuyu at the time of the Jinshin War

Volume 28 of "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), which is called 'Jinsinki', recorded the First Year of Emperor Tenmu (672) and most of its sections were allotted to the Jinshin War. There are two references to Yunonagashi (a post of supervisor for Tomokuyu) and one reference to Tomoku. The word 'Tomokuyu' itself is not seen in the chronicles but since the words 'Tomoku' and 'Yunonagashi' were derived from Tomokuyu, the original Tomokuyu is considered to have existed at that time. Because the Tang Dynasty, which conquered China at the age, had no Tomokuyu, Japanese 'Tomokuyu' seems to have been introduced from a system in the age of the Han dynasty.

Prince Oama sent an envoy to O no Honji, a Yunonagashi of Ahachimanokoori (Anpachi District), on June 22, two days before he took action by himself, and ordered him to raise an army to block the road of Fuwa. Following this order, 3000 soldiers of Mino Province blocked the road for Prince Oama by the 25th. One theory is that soldiers were said to be from Tomokuyu and in another theory the soldiers are from the whole Mino Province, but with either theory, it is certain that Tomokuyu of Ahachimanokoori raised the army first. On the 24th, near Uda public office on the way to Ise Province, Prince Oama happened to see 50 draft horses which carried rice of Tomokuyu to Ise Province. On the 25th, MIYAKE no Iwatoko, a head of local officers,; MIWA no Kobito, a vice-head of the local officers,; TANAKA no Tarimaro and TAKATA no Niinomi, Yunonagashi, met Prince Oama at Suzuka public office in Ise Province.

Taking into account a scale of Jikifu (a vassal household allotted to courtier, shrines and temples) under the later Ritsuryo system, Tomokuyu at that time seems to have not been a part of Ahachimanokoori but a whole district, and range of the district included later Ikeda District, possibly wider. There is two theories about TANAKA no Tarimaro; one says he was the same Yunonagashi of Ahachimanokoori as O no Honji, another says there was the other Tomokuyu in Ise Province and he was there.

Tomokuyu under the Ritsuryo system was only a source of revenue, but the Tomokuyu at that time are supposed to have had a close relationship with the Prince.

Tomokuyu under the Ritsuryo system

Tomokuyu was set for Togu (crown prince) and Chugu (the Empress) in the Ritsuryo system. When Taiho Ritsuryo Code and Yoro Ritsuryo Code were established, 2000 houses of Tomokuyu may have been allotted for only Chugu and later 2000 houses may have been added for Togu. There was Fuko (houses as a salary) besides Tomokuyu in the Ritsuryo system to give to the other Imperial family members and subjects. Fuko and Tomokuyu are different names, but are practically the same thing.

[Original Japanese]