Nakayama family (中山家)
The Nakayama family were kuge (court nobles) with kakaku (family status) of urinke (the fourth highest family status for court nobles). Karoku (hereditary stipend) during the Edo Period was 200 koku (approx. 36.1cubic meters).
They were a branch of the Kazanin family of the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan. The founder was Tadachika NAKAYAMA, a son of FUJIWARA no Tadamune. Naruchika NAKAYAMA, who was the family head during the latter part of the Edo Period confronted Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA, roju (senior councillor of the Tokugawa shogunate), on the occasion of the songo ikken (literally, incident concerning honorific title) and was punished together with Kinaki OGIMACHI.
Tadayasu NAKAYAMA, who was a great-grandchild of Naruchika, was the father of Yasuko NAKAYAMA, who was the biological mother of the Emperor Meiji. Tadayasu played an active role during the period from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji Restoration and he was opposed to joyaku chokkyo (literally, the imperial approval of the treaty) and promoted koka (the marriage of an Imperial Princess to a subject) of Imperial Princess Kazunomiya Chikako. Tadamitsu NAKAYAMA, who was the seventh son of Tadayasu was a vanguard of sonno joi (19th century slogan advocating reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners) and he was made the head of the Tenchu-gumi (literally, Heavenly Avenging Force) but, later, he was assassinated by a member of the Choshu clan (the Tenchu-gumi incident).
After the Meiji Restoration, his achievements since the end of the Edo Period was appreciated and the peerage of count was conferred on Tadayasu and he served as Jingikan (department of worship). Takamaro NAKAYAMA, who was a grandson of Tadayasu filled various posts including being a member of the Board of the Crown Prince's Affairs of the Imperial Household Agency, Togu-daifu (the Lord Steward to the Imperial Prince) and imperial court councilor.