The Toki clan (土岐氏)

The Toki clan is a samurai family who flourished from the Kamakura to the Edo period. Their real family name is Genji (the Minamoto clan). The Toki clan stems from the Settsu-Genji, the descendant of the Seiwa-Genji, whose ancestor was Emperor Seiwa, and mainly flourished in Mino Province as the main branch of the Mino-Genji clan. The family served as Mino no kuni Shugo (a provincial constable of Mino Province) from the Muromachi to the Sengoku (Warring states) Periods, and finally became Shugo daimyo (a provincial constable who became a feudal lord) of Mino, Owari, and Ise Provinces.

The families of the Toki clan were not only in Mino Province but also scattered around the Kanto region such as Hitachi and Kazusa Provinces, and many branch families such as Akechi, Doi, Kanamori, Hachiya, and Hida clans were generated from the Toki clan in Mino Province.

The family crest of the Toki clan bears Mizuiro Kikyo-mon (a light blue-colored pattern of chinese bellflower), and is known for its colored pattern, not black and white. The Kikyo-mon was first used as their family crest to commemorate Mitsuhira TOKI, who fought in battles with Kikyo (chinese bellflower) attached to his helmet. The pattern is called "Toki Kikyo".

Even today, there are some places such as Toki City, Gifu Prefecture and Toki Town, Mizunami City, whose names are associated with the Toki clan, and Kikyo (chinese bellflower) is designated as a flower of Toki City.

The Mino-Toki clan

The descendants of MINAMOTO no Yorikuni, the son of MINAMOTO no Yorimitsu from the Settsu-Genji settled down in Toki County, Mino Province. They built several residences (such as Otomi yakata and Hitoichiba yakata) there and referred to themselves as the Toki clan.

Since the time of MINAMOTO no Kunifusa, the son of Yorikuni, several activities by the member of the Toki clan have been mentioned in historical records. Although it is not clear who (Kunifusa, MINAMOTO no Mitsukuni, MINAMOTO no Mitsunobu, Mitsuhira TOKI) was the ancestor of the Toki clan due to various theories based on the genealogy and other materials, the theory that Mitsuhira was the ancestor of the Toki clan is the most widely accepted one.

The Kamakura period
Mitsuhira lived in the period of Jisho-Juei War, and became Gokenin (a Shogunal retainer) of MINAMOTO no Yoritomo, with the establishment of Kamakura bakufu (a feudal government headed by Yoritomo). Although a book written in the Edo period mentions that Mitsuhira took office as Mino no Shugo (the provincial constable of Mino Province), it is viewed as incredible. The position of Mino no Shugo in the Kamakura period was successively taken over by Koreyoshi OUCHI, Korenobu OUCHI, then the members of Hojo clan, and the Utsunomiya clan and the member of Toki clan had never become Shugo during the Kamakura period.

Some books mention about Mitsuyuki TOKI, the son of Mitsuhira, who sided with the Imperial court (the retired Emperor Gotoba) served as Toki hogandai (an adiministrative official of the retired Emperor's office) in Jokyu War in 1221, when Mino province became a main battle field. Later, however, Mitsuyuki also appears in "Azuma Kagami,"the historical record of kamakura bakufu, therefore, Mitsutoki Toki, the younger brother of Mitsuyuki could be the person who sided with the Imperial court as Toki hogandai (according to the theory by Kengo Taniguchi, a part-time lecturer of Hosei university).

Mitsusada TOKI married the daughter of Sadatoki HOJO, the regent to the Kamakura shogunate, which implies that the Toki clan was in a powerful position in the bakufu. In 1305, Sadachika HACHIYA (the Hachiya clan), the son of Mitsusada was executed because he had been involved in the attack on Tokimura HOJO, who was Rensho (an assistant to the regent). As the execution of Sadachika did not seem to have bad influence on Yorisada TOKI, the brother of Sadachika, Yorisada's family line became the main branch of the Toki family.

During the Kamakura period, the Toki clan made its branch families settle down in Mino Province, where it formed a powerful samurai group called "Kikyo ikki" which was named after its family crest.

The period of the Northern and Southern Courts
In Shochu Disturbance that occurred in 1324, Emperor Godaigo first plotted to overthrow the Kamakura Shogunate. According to "Taiheiki" (The Record of the Great Peace), Yorisada, who participated in the plot to topple bakufu, was killed by the army of bakufu that sensed the conspiracy. However, the story about Taiheiki recorded contradics the fact that Yorisada played an important role in the battles occurred in later years, nevertheless, it is certain that the family of the Toki clan was involved in the plot.

When the Kamakura bakufu was overthrown by the army raised byTakauji ASHIKAGA and Yoshisada NITTA in 1331 (Genko War), Yorisada sided with Takauji, and later distinguished himself in various battle fields in cooperation with Takauji during the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan), then he was finally appointed as Mino no Shugo (the provincial constable of Mino Province). With its strong foothold in Mino Province, the Toki clan became a powerful samurai group who supported the Shogun of the Ashikaga Shogunate.

Yorito TOKI, who was a brave busho (Japanese military commander) also known as "Basara daimyo" (a feudal lord who behaves audaciously), took over the position of Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Mino Province) from Yorisada. Yorito transferred his base to Nagamori-jo castle, a new castle in Atsumi County, from Toki county, which had been the birthplace of the Toki clan since the Heian period. Although Yorito distinguished himself in battles, his excessive arrogance made himself cause a violence against Emperor Kogon in 1342, so he was executed.

After that, Yoriyasu TOKI (the grandson of Yorisada and the nephew of Yorito) succeeded to the position of Mino no Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Mino Province). After the succession of Shugoshiki, Yoriyasu sided with Takauji and Yoshiakira ASHIKAGA, and often renderd distinguished war services. At the height of his prosperity, Yoriyasu became Daidaimyo (a feudal lord having a greater stipend), being in charge of shugoshiki not only in Mino Province, his honryo (main domain), but also Owari and Ise Provinces. In addition, being added to Hyojosyu (the members of Council of State), Yoriyasu was respected as Syukuro (a chief vassal of a samurai family) since the establishment of bakufu.

In Mino Province, he constructed Kawate-jo castle in Atsumi county because the new Nagamori-jo castle built by his uncle in the same county was small. Since then, Kawate-jo castle had been the castle of the head family of the Toki clan during the Muromchi period until the era of Yorinori Toki, the 13th Shugo of Mino Province.

The Muromachi period
Following the death of Yoriyasu in 1387, Yasuyuki TOKI, who was the nephew and adoptive son of Yoriyasu, ascended to the reigns of the family. However, under the reign of the 3rd Shogun Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, who was aiming at strengthening his authority, the powers of several Shugo daimyo families were forced to diminish. Even the power of the Imagawa clan, which was a family of the Ashikaga clan, was weakened by the punishment of Sadayo IMAGAWA, in spite of his great achievements in the past.

However, the Shogunal judgment was passed on the Toki clan earlier than the Imagawa clan.

Yasuyuki was allowed to dominate only Mino and Ise Provinces, even though he was the eldest son, and the remaining Owari Province was distributed to Mitsusada TOKI, (the real younger brother of Yasuyuki). Feeling dissatisfied with this treatment, Yasuyuki was driven to raise an army, but his army was suppressed and ruined by the army of bakufu (Yasuyuki TOKI's rebellion).

Yoritada TOKI (the younger brohter of Yoriyasu and uncle of Yasuyuki) was assigned to Mino no Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Mino Province). However, The TOKI clan was not allowed to be assigned to Ise no Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Ise Province) and was transferred to the Niki clan. After that, the family line of Yoritada (theToki-Nishiikeda clan) succeeded to the reigns of the Toki clan.

After being deprived of Ise Province, Yasuyuki participated in Meitoku War in 1391, standing for bakufu. As his distinguished war service was favorably evaluated, he came back to the position of Ise no shugo. Yasuyuki's family line is called the Toki-Seho clan.

On the other hand, Mitsusada, who participated in the Meitoku War on the Shogunate side, was dissmissed from Owari no Shugo (provincial constable of Owari Province) because of his despicabel act, which declined his power. The position of Owari no Shugo was taken over by the Shiba clan. Toki clan's power was greatly weakened by the intention of Shogun Yoshimitsu.

Mino no Shugo (provincial constable of Mino Province) Yorimasu TOKI, the son of Yoritada, was an excellent busho (military commander) and often distingushed himself in battles, who was listed in Hyojoshu (a member of the Council of State) as one of the head of the Bakufu-Shichito (7 greatest families of bakufu), and became a grand person of the Shogunal cabinet as Samurai-dokoro betto (an administrator of the Board of Retainers).

In "Yasuyuki TOKI's rebellion", which occurred in the past, many branch families of the Toki clan sided with Yukiyasu, therefore, the Toki-Nishiikeda clan headed by Yoritada, who newly became Mino no Shugo, appointed the Tomishima clan and the Saito clan, which were local lord of Tozama (military clans who are not a member of the Shogun's family) as shugodai (deputy of Shugo). Subsequently, at the time when Mochimasu TOKI served as Shugo, a conflict between the Tomishima clan and the Saito clan escalated into a civil war, involving the whole Mino Province (Mino Civil War). Finally winning in the war, the Saito clan unilaterally took over the position of Shugodai and gained real power in Mino Province, whereas Mochimasu was forced to retire and Shigeyori TOKI, a member of a branch famiy of theToki clan and who was backed up by Toshimaga Saito, became Shugo.

When the Onin war broke out in 1467, Shigeyori joined West squad. In this war, Myochin SAITO played an important role by banishing East squad (the Tomishima clan) in Mino Province, and conquered the province by actively seizing Shoen (manor) possessed by Kuge (court nobles) and Kokugaryo (territories governed by provincial government office). Extending the power of the West squad over Owari, Ise, Omi, and Hida Provinces, Myochin came to be considered as a grand person of the West squad. Myochin SAITO's case in this period as well as the case of Takakage ASAKURA (the 7th head of the Asakura family) in Echizen Province are famous as good examples of Gekokujo (an inverted social order when the lowly reigned over the elite) when the power of Shugodai (deputy provincial constable) exceeded that of Shugo (provincial constable).

The Warring States period
After the death of Myochin in 1480, Toshikuni SAITO (Myojun) and Toshifuji SAITO fought against each other (Bunmei Mino War), then, Myojun and Toshimitsu ISHIMARU, who was Shugodai and a main retainer of the Saito clan), had a fight against each other (the Battle of Funada). In this turbulance of Mino province, the Toki clan (Shigeyori and Masafusa TOKI), who served as Shugo, were mere figureheads of the province, where they were involved in conflicts among Kokujin (provincial warriors).

When Myojin, the central figure of the Saito clan, died in the field to Omi Province, Kokujin (local warriors) were devided into two groups, one of which backed up Yoritake TOKI and the other backed up his brother Yorinari TOKI to fight against each other, allowing intervention by the Oda clan in Owari Province, the Rokkaku clan in Omi Province, and the Asakura clan in Echizen Province. The power of Saito clan declined, and the Nagai clan, which was Kasai (the main retainer) of the Saito clan, gained power.

Subsequently, a newcomer Shinzaemon NAGAI (the father of Dosan SAITO), who gained power, dismissed Yoritake from the position of Shugo, and assigned Yorinari, who lived in Sagiyama-jo castle, to the position. After Shinzaemon took over the Nagai clan, his son Norihide NAGAI (later, Dosan SAITO), succeeded to his position and the family name of the Saito clan, referring to himself as Toshimasa SAITO. Being a mere figurehead of the clan, Yorinari was expelled from Mino around 1552 and the power of Toki clan in Mino Province declined.

Meanwhile, Haruyori TOKI, the younger brother of Yorinari succeeded to the reigns of the Edosaki-Toki clan, which was the branch family of the Toki clan, in Hitachi Province, and Yorinari, who was expelled from Mino, temporarily took refuge in Edosaki (present-day Inashiki City, Ibaraki Prefecture). (On this occasion, Yorinari is said to have handed over the status as the main branch of the family to the Edosaki-Toki clan, however, the Edosaki-Toki clan also lost its territories at Odawara no Jin (The Siege of Odawara) by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI, and was destroyed. In addition, Yorinari relied on Tameyori TOKI, who was the head of a branch family of the Toki clan and castellan of Mangi-jo castle in Kazusa Province (present-day Isumi City, Chiba Prefecture). (The Toki clan in Kazusa Province also lost its territories at Odawara no Jin, the Siege of Odawara, by Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI, and was ruined).

Since the Edo period

Yorinari died full of years in 1582, and his sons Yoritsugu TOKI, and Yorimoto TOKI served Edo bakufu as Hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu). The descendant of Haruyori served the Tokugawa clan, where he became a Shogun's retainer when Yoshimune TOKUGAWA ascended to the Shogunate.

The Toki-Seho clan
Although the head of the Toki clan, Yasuyuki TOKI, staged a rebellion against bukufu in 1390, his army was searched and suppressed by Shogun Yoshimitsu and the power of Toki clan declined.

Subsequently, Yasuyuki, the main culprit of the rebellion, was permitted to return to the service of his former lord, and was reassigned to serve as Hankoku shugo (provincial constable in charge of the half area of the Province) in the northern part of Ise Province in 1400. However, as Yasuyuki's family line was deprived of Mino no shugoshiki (provincial constable of Mino Province) by Yoritada's family line (the Nishiikeda clan), Yasuyuki's family line referred to itself as the Seho clan, and intermittently took over Ise no Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Ise Province). As "Kanmon Nikki" (Diary of Imperial Prince Fushimi no miya Sadafusa) described the Seho clan as 'the successor of the Toki clan', the Seho clan seems to have been considered as the original direct descendant of the Toki clan. Kengo Taniguchi, a part-time lecturer of Hosei university mentioned that many families of the Toki clan probably followed the Seho clan.

In 1418, Mochiyori TOKI, the 3rd head of the Seho family, had part of his territory confiscated for allegedly participating in a rebellion against Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA. There is a theory that Mochiyori was dismissed as Ise no Shugoshiki (provincial constable of Ise Province) on this occasion.

In 1424, Mochiyori was blamed for having an affair with a court lady who served a retired emperor, and was hunted down by bakufu. Subsequently, He was pardoned, and returned to the position of Ise no Shugo in 1428. Mochiyori succeeded in subduing the uprising staged by Mitsumasa KITABATAKE (Gonancho force). However, since the Kitabatake family, who served as Kokushi (an officer of a province) had strong power in Ise Province, and often staged rebellions, the Seho family had difficulty in governing the province.

In 1440, Mochiyori was killed in the field to Yamato Province under the order from Yoshinori ASHIKAGA, who promoted a shogunal dictatorship. The position of Hankoku Shugo of the northern part of Ise Province was transferred to the Isshiki clan.

In the Onin War, while Mino-Toki clan belonged to the West squad, Masayasu SEHO, the son of Mochiyori belonged to East squad. One of the reasons for Masayasu's belonging to the East squad was that Yoshinao Isshiki, who was Hankoku Shugo in the northern part of Ise Province, was in the West squad. Masayasu was assigned to serve as Hankoku Shugo in the northern part of Ise Province by the East squad, and fought against Noritomo KITABATAKE over the ruling of Ise Province. Moreover, there is a sign that Masayasu also fought against Mino-Toki clan to cooperate with the Tomishima clan, which was a powerful local lord in Mino Province on the side of East squad.

On the final stage of Onin War, Shugoshiki in the northern and southern parts of Ise Province were assigned to the Isshiki clan, followed by Kitabatake clan. From that time on, the Kitabatake clan served as Ise no Shugo (provincial constable of Ise Province) until the late Warring States period.

The Hitachi-Toki clan

As the Hitachi-Toki clan temporarily referred to itself as the Hara clan, it was also called 'the Tokihara clan'. They went to Hitachi Province, and became a vassal of the Yamanouchi-Uesugi family in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan). Later, it was divided into two clans: the Edosaki-Toki clan and the Ryugasaki-Toki clan, both of which flourished, then the Edosaki-Toki clan dominated the province, and had Haruyori Toki from the head family of the Toki clan. In the Warring States period (Japan), the Hitachi-Toki clan was forced to be loyal to the Gohojo clan, and their power declined along with the Gohojo clan in the Siege of Odawara, but later it became Hatamoto (direct retainer) of Edo bakufu.

The branch families of the Hitachi-Toki clan included figures such as Masatoshi HARA and his son Masatane HARA, who served the Takeda clan as Jinba bugyo (administrator in charge of deployment program), and Nagayori HARA, who served Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI and sided with West squad in the Battle of Sekigahara.

Kazusa-Toki clan

Kazusa-Toki clan is also called Mangi-Toki clan because it was based on Mamgi-jo castle. Tamerori TOKI, who appeared in the Warring States period (Japan), conducted himself tactfully to maintain his power in the middle of confrontation between the Satomi clan and the Gohojo clan over the supremacy of Boso region, however, after his death, the Siege of Odawara broke out in the era of Yoriharu TOKI (Yoshinari), and the Kazusa-Toki clan lost its power because Yoriharu sided with the Gohojo clan.

Family tree
As the family tree of the Toki clan has many unclear parts, it needs more investigation.

Tokugawa fudai daimyo (a daimyo in hereditary vassal to the Tokugawa family) the Toki clan

In contrast to the Toki clan, who served as Mino no Shugo (provincial constable in Mino Province), became Hatamoto (a direct retainer) of the Tokugawa clan, one of the many collateral lines of the Mino-Toki clan produced daimyo (Japanese feudal lord).

The Akechi clan, the collateral line of the Toki clan, who produced daimyo, is said to have been the descendant of Yorimoto Toki, the ninth son of Yorisada Mino, who was the first Mino no Shugo from the Toki clan. Sadaaki AKECHI, who is considered to have lived in the middle of the 16th century, was killed in an internal conflict.

His son Sadamasa fled to Shitara county, Mikawa Province and grew up there, supported by Sadahiro SUGANUMA, the maternal grandfather of him. At first, he was separated from his mother who remarried into the Okudaira clan, therefore, he referred to himself as Tozo SUGANUMA as the adoptive heir of the younger brother of his mother, and had an opportunity to serve Ieyasu TOKUGAWA. Sadamasa was given 10,000 koku (approximately 1.8 million liters of crop yield) in Moriya, Shimousa Province (Moriya domain) when the territory of the Tokugawa clan was transferred to Kanto region. After that, he regained his original family name Toki at Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI 's recommendation.

Under the shogunate and domain system, the territory of the Toki clan was relocated to some other provinces, and finally, it ended up 35,000 koku (approximately 6.3 million liters of crop yield) in Numata domain, Kouzuke Province until the Meiji Restoration was established. The Toki family was also called 'the Toki Yamashiro no kami family' because the members of it successively took over the posion of Yamashiro no kami from Sadamasa, who originated the family.

Incidentally, Yorinori (also called Mitsutsugu AKECHI), who is considered to be the grandfather of Mitsuhide AKECHI, was the elder brother of Yoriaki.

Domain transition

Moriya domain in Shimousa Province - 10,000 koku (approximately 1.8 million liters of crop yield)

Takatsuki domain in Settsu Province - 20,000 koku (approximately 3.6 million liters of crop yield)

Moriya domain in Shimousa Province - 10,000 koku (approximately 1.8 million liters of crop yield)
(The crop yield was reduced and reallocated due to the young age of the lord of domain Yoriyuki TOKI).

Kamiyama domain in Dewa Province - 25,000 koku (approximately 4.5 million liters of crop yield)
(Yoriyuki regained crop yield because he had grown up).

Noka domain in Echizen Province - 35,000 koku (approximately 6.3 million liters of crop yield). (However, it included outlands in Settsu and Kawachi Provinces). The relocation of territory was conducted in accordance with Yorikata TOKI's taking office as Osaka jodai (the keeper of Osaka-jo Castle).

Tanaka domain in Suruga Province - 35,000 koku (approximately 6.3 million liters of crop yield).

Numata domain in Kouzuke Province - 35,000 koku (approximately 6.3 million liters of crop yield).

Genealogy of the Toki clan, Tokugawa fudai (a daimyo in hereditary vassal to the Tokugawa family).

[Original Japanese]