Yong Zhou (雍州)

Yong Zhou was one of the historical provinces in China.

It was among Jiuzhou (literally, The Nine Provinces) in China in ancient times.
Specifically, the "Erya" defined the area as 'Hexi' and the "Shosho" (Classic of History) as 'Heishui Hexi (or, Heishui Xihe).'
The Yellow River flows from south to north near the border between Shan Xi Province and Shanxi Province. The 'Hexi' and 'Xihe' meant the west side of this Yellow River. "The Rites of Zhou" defined the area as 'Zhengxi,' that is, from the center of the field to the due west side.

During the time of han dynasty, the "Yong Zhou" was not used for the name of province, instead, it was designated as Liang Zhou for the area of Shan Xi Province and Gansu Province. In 194 of the Later Han Dynasty, however, four countries of Gansu Province side were separated and named Yong Zhou, while the Shan Xi Province was continuously called Liang Zhou. Later, in 213 the names of the provinces were to be renamed as in ancient Jiuzhou, and Yong Zhou and Liang Zhou were merged into Yong Zhou. Next, in 220, Gansu Province side was separated to be named Liang Zhou, while Shan Xi Province side was to be called Yong Zhou. That is, it resulted in a strange phenomenon that the area called Liang Zhou and the one called Yong Zhou had nearly been exchanged each other in only half a century.

During the reign of Cao Pi, the west of Yong Zhou was separated to Qin Zhou. In early Jin, Changan was established as provincial capital. In 487 of Northern Wei, the west of Yong Zhou was further separated to Qi Zhou.

In 443, on the other hand, independently from Yong Zhou, 'east Yong Zhou' was established in the south of Shanxi Province, but it was abolished in 480. From 376 to 396 of Eastern Jin Dynasty, Nan-Dynasty also establishd Yong Zhou as Qianzhou in the area surrounding Xiangyang. While, in 554 of Westerm Wei, after this area was in occupation of Pei-Dynasty, it was renamed Xianzhou, because two Yong Zhou could not exist in the same Pei-Dynasty.

In the time of Northern Zhou, Sui, and Tang dynasties, Yong Zhou was the state where Changan, national capital existed, accordingly its president was not Zhoucishi but Zhoumu, the title of the peerage and salary of which were higher than shishi (Provincial Governor). Also, as a military base, the Headquarters of 関内道 was placed. In 713 of Tang dynasty, Yong Zhou was renamed as Jingzhaofu and the province name Yong Zhou disappeared accordingly.

Since the province contained Changan, the name was used as the chic alias name for Japanese capital of Yamashiro Province. Another name of '雍尋城州' derived from that.

[Original Japanese]