Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki (大日本国一宮記)

"Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" is an Ichinomiya Ichiran (catalogue of high-ranking shrines of Shinto in Japan) which was written in the Muromachi period, and it was collected into "Gunsho ruiju (Collection of historical documents compiled by Hokiichi HANAWA)" (Volume 23, Part of gods, Collection 2).

The historical materials, in which the names of Ichinomiya (high-ranking shrines of provinces), gods and locations are written, are generally called 'Ichinomiya-Ki'; that kind of material is not rare, and "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" is one of those. There remain many copies of "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" as well. It is an important material for the research on Ichinomiya and is still used as a standard for pilgrimage or report.


"Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" lists the names of 67 shrines of Japan, the names of enshrined gods, the nicknames and the locations; it is closed with the passage "the above are all Ichinomiya shrine of various provinces, those are the mysteries of extreme secrets". The influence of Honji suijaku (Shinto and Buddhist syncretism) is read in the names of shrines and notes (Honchi-suijaku is the theory that Japanese gods and the gods of Buddhism, including the Buddha, Bodhisattva and the gods of esoteric Buddhism, are the one and the same). Since the book lists two shrines of Awa Province and Bungo Province as one and the same shrine, it is considered that the writer hadn't gone to all the spots for research.

From the note for the Kagoshima-jinja Shrine, "Kanemigi said", it is presumed that the book was written about the sixteenth century which Kanemigi YOSHIDA had been alive, with the cooperation from the Yoshida family or a friend of the family.

There remain many copies, and the texts of some copies slightly differ from each other. "Yamatonokuni Ichinomiya-Ki" and "Nihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" are highly similar to "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" in content, so those books are considered to have copied "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki".

"The Various Lines of Ichinomiya-Ki" by Noriko OTSUKA compares "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" with a copy of "Shokoku Ichinomiya Jinmyocho" (Catalogue of High-Ranking Shrines of Provinces) which was copied by Urabe-sukune before 3 April 1375. "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" corrected mistakes of 19 shrines' names in the copy of "Shokoku Ichinomiya Jinmyocho" (only if the writer had known the copy), and based on "Engi-shiki Jinmyocho" (the Catalogue of High-Ranking Shrines collected in "Engi-shiki") made the 14 corrections of those mistakes; besides it re-categorized some shrines of Mutsu Province and Bungo Province, which the copy of "Shokoku Ichinomiya Jinmyocho" had categorized into Shikigaisha (shrines which hadn't been listed in "Engi-shiki Jinmyocho), into Shikinaisha (time-honored shrines which had been listed in "Engi-shiki Jinmyocho"). Therefore "The Various Lines of Ichinomiya-Ki" concludes that the writer of "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" intended to classify shrines based on whether it had been listed in "Engi-shiki Jinmyocho" or not. However, "The Various Lines of Ichinomiya-Ki" also suggests that more research is required to figure out whether the corrections of the mistakes were the result of careful research or the writer had some political intension.

In the early-modern period, "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki" was usually quoted as the most popular catalog among many "Ichinomiya-Ki". Mitsuyoshi TACHIBANA, a Shintoist in the early Edo period, had carried "Yochida Ichinomiya-Ki" and "Toyoashihara Ichinomiya-Ki" (both of those were copied after "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki") to visit Ichinomiya shrines of the whole country, making a long tour over nearly 23 years from 1675 until 1697. Besides, "Jinja Shiko" by Nobutomo BAN (1837) says "Engi-shiki Jinmyocho had already listed all the gods which current Ichinomiya-Ki mention", so Ban seems to have had some Ichinomiya-ki which had been copied after "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki".

Shrines that the book listed

The following are all 67 shrines listed in "Dainihonkoku Ichinomiya-Ki". The order of the shrines, the shrines' names and the locations follow the Gunsho-ruiju edition. As for the names of the gods and the nicknames, although in the original text they are written in only kanji characters, the article's writer converts those to a mix of hiragana and kanji characters.

[Original Japanese]