Fudoso (a warehouse sealed after being examined of its degree of sealing) (不動倉)

Fudoso warehouse was a warehouse which was sealed after being examined of its degree of sealing by the provincial governor and the local official after the content of shoso (warehouse) became full in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code). The rice in the husk which became full was called Fudokoku.

Since the storage of rice in the husk and the placement of Fudoso warehouse were encouraged in the Daijokanpu (official documents issued by Daijokan, Grand Council of State) on September 2, 708, storage of rice in the husk had been carried out year after year nearly 30 years; existing records of rice tax suggest that there existed the storage approximately the same quantity of crop yields of more than 30 years from the rice field tax during the Tenpyo era. Soyocho (a tax system, corvee) paid to kokuga (provincial government office compounds) and gunga (office for county officials) were usually stored by doyoso warehouse (also called the doso warehouse) to distribute both for regular and for emergency uses as doyokoku (rice for regular use), which was sealed by each province's decision when it became full, after a certain period of time. The key of fudoso (a warehouse sealed after the doyoso warehouse became full) was presented to Daijokan (Grand Council of State) of the capital to be securely stored. In case the warehouse was required to be opened, each province had to submit a dajokanpu called Fudoso kaiken shinsei-ge to Daijokan for permission; then receiving a document called Fudo kaiyofu or Fudo-jufu issued from Daijokan along with the key, it was able to be opened.

However, due to the warehouse law, under which the rice in the husk was required to be replaced in certain intervals to prevent corruption, but prohibited to move the content frequently, most of the fudoso were often remained untouched after it unsealed to make the fudokoku putrefied, then to replace the content, the order was issued on September 13, 740, in that each province must be issued the key and the dajokanpu in certain intervals. Furthermore, since troubles on the fudoso warehouse occurred continuously in taking over the position of provincial governor, the kanseikanpu (another name of dajokanpu) was issued on May 15, 763, that in a transfer of the provincial governor, confirmation of the content as well as replacement of the content required to be done.

However, with the fall of the ritsuryo system, diversion and run off the fudoso warehouse occurred one after another, and by the end of the ninth century the fudoso warehouse became name only. Yet it is thought that the ceremony for transfer of Fudokoku did exist although there was no existence of real warehouse until the period of the Northern and Southern Courts in which the provincial governor system still existed.

[Original Japanese]