Gakuryo (学令)

Gakuryo was one of the articles in the ritsuryo codes (legal codes of the Nara and Heian periods). It defined the regulations on the educational institutions for training kanjin (government officials). It was ranked the 11th in the Yoro ritsuryo code and made up of twenty-two articles.

The Japanese Ritsuryo code mainly defined structures of Daigakuryo (Bureau of Education) and kokugaku (provincial schools), and their teachers and students.

The Yoro ritsuryo code consisted of the followings:
Hakase/assistant professor (qualification for an instructor)
Gakusho or a student (qualification for a student at Daigakuryo or kokugaku)
Sekiten (a ceremony to worship Confucius which was taken place in spring)
Zaigaku Ijo (order in school)
Kei Shueki Shosho (textbooks for Confucianism)
Kyoju Shogo (commentaries used in class)
Raiki Saden Kakui Daikyo (selective subjects)
Sendoku Kyomon (how to take classes)
Bunkyo Kyoju (how to give lectures)
Ikoka Tokyu (how to evaluate instructors)
Tsunikyo (employing excellent long-term learners as government officials)
Kosetsu Fucho (employing government officials by examination)
Sankei (sando or arithmetic)
Kai Keigi (in cases of kokushi (provincial governors) or gunji (district managers) acting as instructors)
Sho gakusei (examinations to students of calligraphy (Daigakuryo), sando and so on)
Seika (gakusho's application for leave)
Gyorei (gakusho's courtesy in attending ceremonies)
Futoku Sagaku (gakusho's life attitudes)
Somo (gakusho who took mourning leave for a parent)
Hodenka (special holidays to gakusho)
Hikaitai (withdrawal from school)
Koshi (gakusho's observation of ceremonies)

Articles 5 to13 were all related to Myogyodo that dealt with Confucianism (after all, it is thought that at the time of establishing Daigakuryo only a regular course corresponding to later Myokyodo and sanka corresponding to arithmetic virtually existed. However, in fact Kidendo (the study of the histories), which did not exist at the birth of daigaku and kokugaku, came to be valued highly, and the educational system of daigaku and kokugaku was changed into Kidendo-oriented one.

[Original Japanese]