Government Organization of Early Modern Japan (近代日本の官制)

Under the title "Government Organization of Early Modern Japan," this article outlines the changes of major agencies of the central government of Japan from rom January 3, 1868, when the Meiji restoration was started with Restoration of Imperial Rule, to December 24, 1889, when the official organization system under the Cabinet was established. For the government organization before modern times, refer to "Government Organization in Japan," and for the current cabinet system, refer to "Cabine of Japan," respectively.

Three Offices
From January 3, 1868 to June 11, 1868
On January 3, 1868, three offices of Sosai, Gijo and Sanyo (all of them, roughly concilors) were established, abolishing the positions of Sessho Kampaku (regent and chief adviser to the Emperor), Seii Taishogun (shogun, literally meaning, "great general who subdues the barbarians"), Nairan (private inspection), Chokumon (questions by Emperor), Kokujigakari (officials in charge of state affairs), Giso (a position conveying what the congress decides to Emperor), Buke Tenso (a position conveying messages between Emperor and the shogunate), Shugoshiki (military governor) and Shoshidai (the shogunate's military governor stationed in Kyoto).

On February 10, 1868, the structure of the three offices was regulated and organized.

On February 25, 1868, seven sections were reorganized into eight bureaux (General Bureau was created).

In February, 1868, the system of choshi (official) and koshi (representative of each domain) was established.
Koshi was appointed as member of the 'Lower Meeting Place.'

On April 6, 1868, the basic policies of the government were presented according to the Charter Oath of Five Articles.

Dajokansei (Dajokan system)
The Constitution of 1868
From June 11, 1868 to August 15, 1869
On April 11, 1868, the authority of Dajokan (Grand Council of State) was divided into legislative, executive and judicial branches, and each of them was led by Giseikan (an official to take charge of legislation), Gyoseikan (an official to take charge of administration) and Keihokan (an official to take charge of criminal justice), respectively.

On September 3, 1868, the Meiji Emperor visited Tokyo and issued an imperial edict for renaming Edo as Tokyo.

On April 5, 1869, Dajokan was relocated to Tokyo.

Two Officials and Six Ministries
From August 15, 1869 to September 13, 1871
On July 25, 1869, lands and people were returned to Emperor ("hanseki hokan").

On August 15, 1869, the whole system of job grades and court ranks was revised. The traditional Momono-tsukasa (many officials) and Zuryo (provincial governors) were totally abolished and two officials and six ministries were newly established. Jushii (Junior Fourth Rank) and lower ranks had been divided into two ("higher" and "lower") but such division was abolished, and court ranks were reorganized into eighteen stages from Shoichii (Senior First Rank) to Shosoi (Later Shokui (Senior Ninth Rank) was newly created and the number of court ranks increased to twenty on September 25, 1869).

Tricameral System
From September 13, 1871 to April 14, 1875
On August 29, 1871, feudal domains were abolished and prefectures were established ("haihan chiken").

On September 13, 1871, the government organization was revised.

On September 24, 1871, government organization was revised. The traditional Kanisoto Sei (the ranks of the bureaucracy system of the ritsuryo system) was abolished and new official ranks (fifteen in total) were created.

The government organization introduced in 1975
From April 14, 1875 to December 22, 1885
On February 11, 1875, Osaka conference was held.

On April 14, 1875, the imperial edict to establish a constitutional government (gradually establishing the constitutional government) was issued.

Cabinet system
Authority of Cabinet
From December 22, 1885 to December 24, 1889
On December 22, 1885, with the No.69 Dajokan tasshi (proclamation by the Grand Council of State) of 1885 and by establishing the authorities of the Cabinet, the system of Daijokan was abolished and the Cabinet system was created.

Official organization system under the Cabinet
From December 24, 1889 to May 3, 1947
On December 24, 1889, the official organization system under the Cabinet (No.135 Imperial Edict of 1889) was established.

[Original Japanese]