Hachigyaku (eight unpardonable crimes) (八虐)

Hachigyaku means the eight most serious crimes in the ritsuryo code. In principle, those who committed these crimes were executed. Even nobles were neither given reduction of the penalty nor granted amnesty. Not only crimes against nation or emperor, but also those against shrines or ancestors were included in the Hachigyaku, which indicates the fact that the social order based on status was valued. It is based on 'Juaku' (ten evils) in the Tang Ritsuryo Code, but 'Fuboku' (family trouble) and 'Nairan' (crimes that disturb the family, particularly adultery, incest etc.; the meaning is different from that of today) were excluded.

Muhen is the crime of killing emperors (including attempted murder and preparation of murder). It was considered to be the greatest crime.

Botaigyaku is the insulting and disrespectful acts such as destroying Imperial Palace and imperial mausoleums.

Muhon means a rebellion. That included rebellion against the government, high treason and exile abroad.

Akugyaku is a murder of ancestor

Fudo means serious crimes in general such as mass murder and occultism.

Daifukei is an act of disrespect for shrines.

Fukyo is a crime against ancestors except murder.

Fugi means murders of superiors such as lord, master and husband.

[Original Japanese]