Hakuho culture (白鳳文化)

Hakuho culture is a magnanimous culture which flourished between the Taika Reforms in 645 and the relocation of Heijo-kyo capital in 710, falling between the Asuka culture represented by the architecture and Buddha statues of Horyu-ji Temple and the Tenpyo culture represented by Buddha statues of Todai-ji Temple and buildings of Toshodai-ji Temple.
In addition, Hakuho is one of the era names which do not appear in Chronicles of Japan (called 'Itsugango' or 'Shinengo') (However, Hakuo appears in Shoku Nihongi.)
The era name of Hakuo is thought to have been used around the time of the Emperor Tenmu (another theory is around the time of the Emperor Tenchi), when the Hakuho culture was also at its best.

Completed around the end of seventh century and being the largest-scaled among the ancient cities, it was a gorgeous, imperial and aristocratic culture around the Fujiwara Capital, which featured genuine Chinese style capital with street plan.

It was also the time when the Asuka Kiyomihara Code and the Taiho Code were established, and the genuine nation began. It was affected by the culture of early Tang, the Korean Peninsula, India and West and Central Asia.

The culture flourished most at the time of the Emperor Tenmu and the Emperor Jito, but included some of the time of their predecessors, the Emperor Tenchi and the Emperor Kobun.

Establishment of the Ritsuryo codes
The genuine nation launched adopting highly-civilized system from mainland China.

The Asuka Kiyomihara Code
Taiho Code was completed in 701 and enforced immediately..

History books

Kojiki (The Records of Ancient Matters)
Nihonshoki (Chronicles of Japan)
Fudoki (description of regional climate, culture, etc.)

Poetry anthology

Manyo-shu (the oldest anthology of tanka)


The Imperial Palace and Chodo-in (government offices) of the Fujiwara Capital
Daikandai-ji Temple and Yakushi-ji Temple Toto (east pagoda) with mokoshi (double-roof structure)
Yamada-dera Temple (Jodo-ji Temple)
It is located in Yamada, Sakurai City. SOGANOKURA-YAMADA no Ishikawamaro reared it as the Uji-dera Temple (temple built for praying clan's glory) of the Kurayamada family at his wish. Ishikawakamaro, a grandchild of SOGA no Umako and a child of SOGA no Kuramaro, was falsely charged by his younger paternal half-brother SOGA no Himuka, and killed himself at Yamada-dera Temple. It is a temple of tragedy.

Horyu-ji Temple Saiin Garan (the Western Precinct) (rebuilt)

Yakushi Sanzonzo (three statues that comprise the Yakushi Triad) in Kon-do (the main hall) of the Yakushi-ji Temple
Sho Kannon zo (statue of Sho Kannon) in the Yakushi-ji Temple Toin-do
Amida Sanzon-zo (the statue of Amida Triad) in Horyu-ji Temple
Yume-Chigai Kannon zo (statue of Yume-Chigai Kannon) in Horyu-ji Temple
The Buddha head in Kofuku-ji Temple (it was originally a part of principal image of Buddha, Yakushi Sanzonzo in Yamada-dera Temple)


Horyu-ji Kondo Wall Paintings
Mural-painting in the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus
Mural-painting in the Kitora Tumulus


Suien (a flame-shaped adornment at the top of a tower) of Yakushi-ji Temple Toto
Pedestal of Yakushi Nyorai in the Yakushi-ji Temple Kon-do


Takamatsuzuka Tumulus
Kitora Tumulus


Popularity of Chinese prose and poetry
- Prince Otsu
Organizing Waka poetry
- Nukata no Okimi and KAKINOMOTO no Hitomaro


Genka reki (Genka calendar)
Giho reki (kind of Chinese calendar)

[Original Japanese]