Hanpo (one of appointments of government posts) (判補)

Hanpo refers to one of Bunin (appointments of government posts) in the ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code). It was subordinated to Chokunin (imperial appointment), Sonin (appointment by Dajokan [Grand Council of State] upon imperial approval) and Hannin (appointment by Shikibu-sho [the Ministry of Ceremonial] upon approval of Dajokan), and was mainly used when conducting Bunin for Zonin (lower-ranking government official).

The appointment was made by Dajokan upon selection by Shikibu-sho or Hyobu-sho (the Ministry of Military), but the ministry substantially held the appointing power, and furthermore, it is considered that the selection was conducted in consideration of an intention of government official who would supervise a government post to subject to Bunin.

Targeted officers were Bunbankan (officers subject to shiftwork) whose rank was equivalent to Mui (no rank) or Shoi (Initial Rank) such as Toneri (palace servant), Shisho (people who performed miscellaneous duties about documents), Shibu (low rank bureaucrats), Tomo no miyatsuko (servant of the court administering a group), Chonai (lower-rank officers provided to imperial princes or princesses in order to guard them and/or perform miscellaneous services), Shijin (lower-rank officers provided to vassals in order to guard them and/or perform miscellaneous services) and so on.

[Original Japanese]