Hokokamai (a kind of punishment during the Edo period) (奉公構)

Hokokamai refers to a kind of punishment for samurai warriors during the Edo period, which was the circular letter that was issued to vassal deserters or forfeiters of rank by feudal lords. This did not allow those who got the letter to become an officer to other clan again and expelled them from there. This was a severe punishment next to seppuku in samurai class. Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI started this punishment.

[Original Japanese]