In no cho kudashibumi (院庁下文)

In no cho kudashibumi were the documents issued by Incho (Retired Emperor's Office) during the Insei (government by cloistered emperor) during the Heian period. It took the form of Kudashibumi which were the documents cosigned by In no Tsukasa (officials of Incho) and were given to lower agencies. It was considered more formal than Inzen (decree of cloistered emperor).

According to the the Ritsuryo codes, the government's final decision was supposed to be issued as a form of Shochoku (emperor's rescript) or Daijokanpu (documents issued by Department of State). However, in the later Heian period, when the Insei political system started, where the retired emperor took power and administered all affairs of state as a de facto emperor, it was required to establish a way to express its own political will instead of Daijokanpu. Therefore, In no cho kudashibumi issued by Incho that was established as the de facto government came to be treated as powerful as Shochoku and Daijokanpu.

While Inzen took the strong nature of the personal documents of the cloistered emperor and was quickly responsive and flexible, In no cho kudashibumi was to deal with important affairs, as was the case of Shochoku or Daijokanpu.

[Original Japanese]