In-no-hyojo (院評定)

In-no-hyojo was an agreement presided by the retired emperor or cloistered emperor during his post-retirement government.

At the end of the Heian period, with the development of government by a retired emperor, the abdicated emperor and cloistered emperor came to make important decisions after formulating agreements at their own residence, replacing the reign of the emperor at the Imperial Palace. Not all court nobles were allowed to join the decision-making processes, and only specific court nobles and In no Kinshin (the retired Emperor's courtier) could join.

Gosagain revised the government by a retired emperor in 1246 during his post-retired government. Similarly to the hyojoshu (a member of Council of State) of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), five members including Saneuji SAIONJI were appointed to hyojoshu, and the 'In-no-fu-dono,' Fumidono (the retired emperor's Documents Bureau) in the In no cho (Retired Emperor's Office) was designated as the venue. Lawsuits and political issues were processed at the venue, and the venue also served as Kirokujo (Land Record Office) of the in-no-fu-dono. The venue was staffed with middle to low-ranked court nobles who were versed in the Ritsuryo codes and Confucianism to assist and facilitate the in-no-hyojo processes. Since then, the in-no-hyojo at the In-no-fu-dono became the central organization for the government by a retired emperor until its political authority was deprived by the Muromachi bakufu at the end of the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (Japan).

[Original Japanese]