Jikimu (直務)

Jikimu refers to immediate dominance of shoen (manor in medieval Japan) by the lord of the manor (honjo [the administrative headquarters of a shoen] and ryoke [virtual proprietor of manor]), executing Shomuken (the authority of the jurisdiction and the administration of Shoen).


After the Kamakura period, the lord of the manor entrusted shokan (an officer governing shoen), jito (manager and lord of manor), doso (pawnbrokers and moneylenders) and so on, with the total management of shoen to collect fixed land tax. Those who contracted to manage the shoen were called ukeoi daikan. When shokan took the post of ukeoi daikan, he called himself daikanuke; when jito and shugo (provincial constable) took the post, they called themselves jitouke and shugouke respectively. However, the revenues from shoen had gradually decreased because of the nonpayment of tribute, shitaji chubun (physical division of the land), and the introduction of hanzei (the system in the Muromachi period where the Muromachi bakufu [Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun] allowed military governors, or Shugo, to collect half of the taxes from manors and demesnes as military fund). Meanwhile, the ukeoi daikan levied harshly from farmers and made it their own profit on site. The farmers grew to distrust ukeoi daikan. Moreover, people living in shoen might be united to create a village community, such as soson (a community consisting of peasants' self-governing association), and confront the lord of the manor's side.

Then, the lord of the manor sent a local governor (jikimu daikan), who was assigned directly or by his own great vassal, and held direct rule for the site. This is called jikimu. Moreover, the farmers might demand that the lord of the manor send a jikimu daikan. The lord of the manor might dismiss a shokan or a jito and recruit a shomu daikan who would take charge of land management.

There was a well-known example of feudal lord's jikimu; in 1501, former Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor) Masamoto KUJO went to his shoen, Hine no sho, Izumi Province, in order to confront the seizure by Shugo Hosokawa clan. As for a well-known example of jikimu daikan, in 1461, farmers of the shoen, Niimi no sho in Mimasaka Province, dismissed the ukeoi daikan Chian YASUTOMI, a vassal of Hosokawa clan, and asked To-ji Temple, which was the feudal lord, to send jikimu daikan; and the request was realized.

[Original Japanese]