Jisha honjoryo (lands of temples and nobles) (寺社本所領)

Jisha Honjoryo was shoen (private estate) and shoryo (individual holding, domain) specifically meaning kugeryo (estate of the nobility) and jisharyo (estate of local temples and shrines) separately from bukeryo (estate of samurai family.)


Before the twelfth century when bushi (warriors) came into power, there was no distinction among the estates, and shoen and shoryo belonged to honjo (owner of shoen), who has shomuken (administrative power and jurisdiction in shoen), were called 'honjo ryo' (patronage properties) of the corresponding ryoshu (estate proprietors; the court nobles, temples and shrines).
At the end of the twelfth century, however, three of the bukeryo including Kanto goryo (shogun's personal holdings) of the Kamakura shogun (general of the eastern pacification command in Kamakura), corresponding to shoen and shoryo, the existing kugeryo and jisharyo, and kokugaryo (provincial land) koryo (public land) needed to be distinguished from one another, and accordingly, they were called 'honjoryo.'
The Kamakura bakufu succeeded in calling the residents in the honjoryo, in which the bakufu established a ruling throughout the land, to arms through the external crisis accompanying Genko (Mongol Invasion), but still cannot exercise kendanken (provincial policing authority) and so forth on the honjoryo -- On the contrary, the bakufu prayed for divine protection and expected god and Buddha to support the bakufu to overcome the external crisis, and took a policy to protect not the right of the gokenin (the top of the warrior-class hierarchy) but the right of the jisharyo by issuing the jishakogyoho (Shrine restoration policy). The term 'honjoryo' originally included the jisharyo, but from the end of the Kamakura period to the Nanbokucho period (Japanese North and South Dynasties period), 'jisharyo' was written separately from 'honjoryo' to distinguish between the jisharyo and the honjoryo.

The Muromachi bakufu called the jisharyo and the kugeryo collectively as 'jisha honjoryo', and called especially the land, throughout of which was ruled by the bakufu and neither jito (steward) nor azukari dokoro (estate custodian) was placed, as honjo ichien shihaichi (honjo throughout ruled land) (It was considered that the term 'jisha honjoryo' first appeared in the laws and regulations of the bakufu in 1351. The kokugaryo was included in the jisha honjoryo in some cases.)
Along with kinri goryo (private estate of Imperial Palace) and denka watariryo (a collection of estates passed on by inheritance to the Fujiwara house chieftain) (sekkanke shoryo; estate of the Fujiwara regent's line), jisha honjoryo was under the protection of the bakufu, but in the Nanbokucho civil war, hyoro ryosho (land specified for collecting provisions) was settled there for securing provisions or it was embezzled by samurai families as the object of hanzeirei (half-tax decrees). To cope with this situation, the Muromachi bakufu took the attitude of rejecting all the cases of embezzlement by forcing shitaji chubun (physical division of the shoen) on the jisha honjoryo by promulgating oan no hanzeirei (half-tax decrees in the oan era) (but, even the half-tax measure was rejected for kinri goryo, denka watariryo, and honjo ichien shihaichi); however, during the Sengoku period (warring states period), the decree became in name only and most part of the jisha honjoryo except for the land under the direct rule was deprived by sengoku daimyo (local chieftain of warring province) and kokujin (leading local warrior).

[Original Japanese]