Joshu Daimyo (governors of castles) (城主大名)

Joshu daimyo (daimyo who is allowed to live in a castle) is a social status in the early-modern times of the Edo period, and refers to a daimyo, who was allowed to have a castle as his residence in his kunimoto (hometown), among Daimyo families (feudal lord families) classified according to their resident provinces and resident castles into five ranks: kokushu (landed daimyos), jun (associate) kokushu, joshu (lord of a castle), joshukaku (joshu class), mujo (without a castle) (jinya [regional government office]). In addition, for controlling daimyos there were a list of daimyos containing nami-daimyo (low-class daimyos) appointed to Shodaifu (Jugoinoge [Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade]) and another list of those who could be promoted to Shihon (the fourth-rank) or higher; and they were distinguished by the rooms where they were assigned to wait before being received in audience. in 1867, there were 151 daimyo families.

According to "Buke Shohatto" (code for the warrior households) issued in 1717, a joshu could repair building parts equal to or less than a tower, fence or gate after submitting an application and obtaining an approval; and, when a stone wall was broken, the joshu was supposed to report to bugyo (commissioner [in charge of repair and management]) and to receive his instruction. For this reason it was said that the shiro (castle) under the Tokugawa shogunate system was defined as a structure including fences and a tower on a stone wall.

Major castles in the early-modern times

Listed below are major castle sites where daimyos who were joshus, kokushus or jun-kokushus were assigned after the Ikkoku Ichijo Rei (Law of One Castle per Province) had been issued:

It was not allowed to build a castle in places other than those castle sites listed below, and even those places where castles had existed since the medieval period (the Kamakura and Muromachi periods) were designated as jinya:

Mutsu Province
Hirosaki Domain: Hirosaki-jo Castle
Morioka Domain: Morioka-jo Castle and Hanamaki-jo Castle
Sendai Domain: Sendai-jo Castle and Shiraishi-jo Castle
Aizu Domain: Wakamatsu-jo Castle and Inawashiro-jo Castle
Fukushima Domain: Fukushima-jo Castle
Miharu Domain: Miharu-jo Castle
Nihonmatsu Domain: Nihonmatsu-jo Castle
Shirakawa Domain: Shirakawa-jo Castle
Tanagura domain: Tanagura-jo Castle
Soma Domain: Soma-nakamura-jo Castle
Iwakitaira Domain: Iwakitaira-jo Castle
Dewa Province
Kubota Domain: Kubota-jo Castle, Odate-jo Castle, and Yokote-jo Castle
Honjo Domain: Honjo-jo Castle
Shonai Domain: Tsurugaoka-jo Castle and Kamegasaki-jo Castle
Shonai Domain branch domain: Matsuyama-jo Castle (Dewa Province)
Shinjo Domain: Shinjo-jo Castle
Yamagata Domain: Yamagata-jo Castle
Kaminoyama Domain: Kaminoyama-jo Castle
Yonezawa Domain: Yonezawa-jo Castle
Hitachi Province
Mito Domain: Mito-jo Castle, Matsuoka-jo Castle (Hitachi Province)
Kasama Domain: Kasama-jo Castle
Tsuchiura Domain: Tsuchiura-jo Castle
Shimotsuke Province
Otawara Domain: Otawara-jo Castle
Karasuyama Domain: Karasuyama-jo Castle
Utsunomiya Domain: Utsunomiya-jo Castle
Mibu Domain: Mibu-jo Castle
Sano Domain: Sano Jinya
Kozuke Province
Tatebayashi Domain: Tatebayashi-jo Castle
Maebashi Domain: Maebashi-jo Castle and Musashi-no-kuni Kawagoe-jo Catsle
Takasaki Domain: Takasaki-jo Castle
Numata Domain: Numata-jo Castle
Annaka Domain: Annaka-jo Castle
Shimosa Province
Koga Domain: Koga-jo Castle
Yuki Domain: Yuki-jo Castle
Seki-juku Domain: Seki-juku-jo Castle
Sakura Domain: Sakura-jo Castle
Kazusa Province
Sanuki Domain: Sanuki-jo Castle
Kururi Domain: Kururi-jo Castle
Otaki Domain: Otaki-jo Castle
Musashi Province
Oshi Domain: Oshi-jo Castle
Iwatsuki Domain: Iwatsuki-jo Castle
(Kawagoe Domain: Kawagoe-jo Catsle and Kozuke-no- kuni Umayabashi-jo Castle)
Sagami Province
Odawara Domain: Odawara-jo Castle
Kai Province
Kofu Domain: Koshu-jo Castle
Yamura Domain: Yamura-jo Castle
Shinano Province
Iiyama Domain: Iiyama-jo Castle
Matsushiro Domain: Matsushiro-jo Castle
Ueda Domain: Ueda-jo Castle
Komoro Domain: Komoro-jo Castle
Matsumoto Domain: Matsumoto-jo Castle
Takashima Domain: Takashima-jo Castle
Takato Domain: Takato-jo Castle
Iida Domain: Iida-jo Castle
Echigo Province
Murakami Domain: Murakami-jo Castle
Shibata Domain: Shibata-jo Castle
Echigo-Nagaoka Domain: Nagaoka-jo Castle
Takada Domain: Takada-jo Castle
Suruga Province
Sunpu Domain: Sunpu-jo Castle
Numazu Domain: Numazu-jo Castle
Tanaka Domain: Tanaka-jo Castle

Totomi Province
Sagara Domain: Sagara-jo Castle
Kakegawa Domain: Kakegawa-jo Castle
Yokosuka Domain: Yokosuka-jo Castle
Hamamatsu Domain: Hamamatsu-jo Castle
Mikawa Province
Mikawa-Yoshida Domain: Yoshida-jo Castle (Mikawa Province)
Tahara Domain: Tahara-jo Castle (Mikawa Province)
Okazaki Domain: Okazaki-jo Castle
Nishio Domain: Nishio-jo Castle
Kariya Domain: Kariya-jo Castle
Koromo Domain: Shichishu-jo Castle
Owari Province
Owari Domain: Nagoya-jo Castle, Inuyama-jo Castle, and Mino-no-kuni Imao-jo Castle
Mino Province
Naeki Domain: Naeki-jo Castle
Iwamura Domain: Iwamura-jo Castle
Kano Domain: Kano-jo Castle
Gujo Hachiman: Gujo Hachiman-jo Castle
Ogaki Domain: Ogaki-jo Castle
Ise province
Nagashima Domain: Nagashima-jo Castle
Kuwana Domain: Kuwana-jo Castle
Kanbe Domain: Kanbe-jo Castle
Isekameyama Domain: Kameyama-jo Castle (Ise Province)
Tsu Domain: Tsu-jo Castle and Iga-no-kuni Ueno-jo Castle
Shima Province
Toba Domain: Toba-jo Castle
Kaga Province
Kaga Domain: Kanazawa-jo Castle and Komatsu-jo Castle
Daishoji Domain: Daishoji-jo Castle
Ecchu Province
Toyama Domain: Toyama-jo Castle
Echizen Province
Fukui Domain: Fukui-jo Castle and Maruoka-jo Castle
Katsuyama Domain: Katsuyama-jo Castle
Ono Domain: Ono-jo Castle (Echizen Province)
Sabae Domain: Sabae Jinya
Tsuruga Domain: Tsuruga-jo Castle
Wakasa Province
Obama Domain: Obama-jo Castle (Wakasa Province)
Omi Province
Hikone Domain: Hikone-jo Castle
Minakuchi Domain: Minakuchi-jo Castle
Zeze Domain: Zeze-jo Castle
Yamashiro Province
Yodo Domain: Yodo-jo Castle
Yamato Province
Koriyama Domain: Koriyama-jo Castle (Yamato Province)
Takatori Domain: Takatori-jo Castle
Kii Province
Kishu Domain: Wakayama-jo Castle, Shingu-jo Castle, Tanabe-jo Castle (Kii Province), Ise-no-kuni Tamaru-jo Castle, and Matsuzaka-jo Castle
Settsu Province
Osaka Domain: Osaka-jo Castle
Takatsuki Domain: Takatsuki-jo Castle
Amagasaki Province: Amagasaki-jo Castle
Izumi Province
Kishiwada Domain: Kishiwada-jo Castle
Tanba Province
Tanbakameyama Domain: Kameyama-jo Castle (Tanba Province)
Fukuchiyama Domain: Fukuchiyama-jo Castle
Sasayama Domain: Sasayama-jo Castle
Tango Province
Tango-Tanabe Domain: Tanabe-jo Castle (Tango Province)
Miyazu Domain: Miyazu-jo Castle
Harima Provicne
Akashi Domain: Akashi-jo Castle
Himeji Domain: Himeji-ji Castle
Tatsuno Domain: Tatsuno-jo Castle
Ako Domain: Ako-jo Castle
Tajima Province
Izushi Domain: Izushi-jo Castle

Bizen Province
Okayama Domain: Okayama-jo Castle
Mimasaka Province
Tsuyama Domain: Tsuyama-jo Castle
Mimasaka-Katsuyama Domain: Katsuyama-jo Castle (Mimasaka Province)
Inaba Province
Tottori Domain: Tottori-jo Castle and Yonago-jo Castle
Izumo Provinnce
Matsue Domain: Matsue-jo Castle
Iwami Province
Hamada Domain: Hamada-jo Castle
Tsuwano Domain: Tsuwano-jo Castle
Bicchu Province
Bicchu-matsuyama Domain: Matsuyama-jo Castle (Bicchu Province)
Bingo Province
Bigo-Fukuyama Domain: Fukuyama-jo Castle (Bingo Province)
Aki Province
Hiroshima Domain: Hiroshima-jo Castle andBingo-no-kuni Mihara-jo Castle
Nagato Province
Choshu Domain: Hagi-jo Castle and Suo-no-kuniIwakuni-jo Castle
Sanuki Province
Takamatsu Domain: Takamatsu-jo Castle (Sanuki Province)
Marugame Domain: Marugame-jo Castle
Awa Province
Tokushima Domain: Tokushima-jo Castle and Awaji-no-kuni Sumoto-jo Castle
Iyo Province
Imabari Domain: Imabari-jo Castle
Iyo-Matsuyama Domain: Matsuyama-jo Castle (Iyo Province)
Ozu Domain: Imabari-jo Castle
Uwajima Domain: Uwajima-jo Castle
Tosa Province
Tosa Domain: Kochi-jo Castle
Tsushima Province
Tsushima-Fuchu Domain: Sajikihara-jo Castle
Chikuzen Province
Fukuoka Domain: Fukuoka-jo Castle
Chikugo Province
Kurume Domain: Kurume-jo Castle
Yanagawa Domain: Yanagawa-jo Castle
Buzen Province
Kokura Domain: Kokura-jo Castle
Nakatsu Domain: Nakatsu-jo Castle
Bungo Province
Kitsuki Domain: Kitsuki-jo Castle
Hiji Domain: Hiji-jo Castle
Funai Domain: Funai-jo Castle
Usuki Domain: Usuki-jo Castle
Saeki Domain: Saeki-jo Castle
Oka Domain: Oka-jo Castle (Bungo Province)
Hizen Province
Karatsu Domain: Karatsu-jo Castle
Saga Domain: Saga-jo Castle, Ogi-jo (jinya), Hasuike-jo Castle, Kashima -jo Castle
Hirado Domain: Hirado-jo Castle
Omura Domain: Omura-jo Castle
Shimabara Domain: Shimabara-jo Castle
Fukue Domain: Fukue-jo Castle
Higo Province
Kumamoto Domain: Kumamoto-jo Castle and Yatsushiro-jo Castle
Hitoyoshi Domain: Hitoyoshi-jo Castle
Hyuga Province
Nobeoka: Nobeoka-jo Castle
Takanabe Domain: Takanabe-jo Castle
Obi Domain: Obi-jo Castle
Sadowara Domain: Sadowara-jo Castle
Satsuma Province
Satsuma Domain: Kagoshima-jo Castle

Joshukaku Daimyo (daimyo without castle, but treated almost as joshu daimyo)

A joshukaku daimyo was a daimyo whose residence in his hometown was a jinya, but who was treated like a joshu daimyo; which is an example of preferential treatment of a daimyo without a castle as joshu daimyo. The minimum karoku (hereditary stipend) of roju (member of shogun's council of elders) was 25,000 koku (1 koku = approximately 180.39 liters) rice crop yields, and, if a daimyo whose position was close to roju, but was receiving less, he was treated as rojukaku; likewise a mujo daimyo (a daimyo without a castle) was treated as joshukaku daimyo. In the hierarchy of wakadoshiyori (assistants to roju in the Edo bakufu), a joshu daimyo, even if nominated later, was placed higher than a mujo nominated earlier.

A legitimate child of a mujo daimyo was not nominated to a Shodaibu (low rank official) at Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) and was not allowed to ride a vehicle (kago [palaquin]). A joshukaku daimyo was not allowed to convert his jinya to a castle, actually allowed to build only a castle gate. However, those who were Shihon (the fourth rank) Jushiinoge [Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade]) were ranked by government posts and appointment years regardless of possession of a castle. In the seating hierarchy within Edo-jo Castle, any Shodaibu of Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade whose kokudaka (the assessed value of their landholdings in rice), rounded down to the nearest 10,000 koku, was equal to that of a joshu (castle lord) daimyo, was seated one notch down from such joshu daimyo (for example, the Todo family, a Joshukaku with 53,000 koku, was seated one notch below the Mizoguchi family, a joshu with 50,000 koku). After castles other than main castles were abandoned by Ikkoku Ichijo Rei (Law of One Castle per Province) in1615, many daimyos who were newly promoted or who had their domains subdivided appeared, causing the lack of the sites to be given for building castles. For this reason, families who had served as wakadoshiyori for many years, and old and noble families were treated as joshukaku, and at the end of Edo Period there were 19 such families at the end of Edo Period (1867).

Major joshukaku daimyos

Ii clan
Annaka Domain (joshu)=> Nishio Domain (joshu)=> Kakegawa Domain (joshu)=> Yoita Domain (joshukaku); 20,000 kokus, fudai (hereditary daimyos); Teikan no ma (room for fudai daimyo of Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade and Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade)
Itakura clan
Daimyo in Shimotsuke Province (mujo)=>Izumi Domain (joshukaku)=> Sagara Domain (joshukaku)=> Annaka Domain (joshu); 15,000 koku=> 20,000 koku=>30,000 koku; fudai; Kari no ma (room for castle-owning fudai daimyo newly assigned after the establishment of the Edo bakufu)
Iwaki clan
Kameda Domain (joshukaku); 20,000 koku; tozama (outside feudal lord); Yanagi no ma (a waiting room with the paintings of willows in the Edo-jo Castle, for middle-rank warrors before meeting Shogun)
Mino Endo clan
Gujo Hachiman Domain (mujo=>joshukaku=>joshu)=>daimyo in Hitachi-no-kuni Shimotsuke (mujo) =>Mikami Domain (joshukaku); 27,000 koku=>24,000 koku=>10,000 koku=>12,000 koku; fudai; Kiku no ma
Oda clan
Obata Domain (mujo/list of daimyos promoted to or higher than Shihon)=>Takahata Domain (joshukaku)=>Tendo Domain (joshukakau); 20,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Kuki clan
Toba Domain (joshu)=>Sanda Domain (joshukaku); 36,000 koku, tozama; Yanagi no ma=>Kiku no ma
Kuroda clan
Akizuki Domain (joshukaku); 50,000 kokus; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Sakai clan
Tsuruga Domain (mujo=>joshukaku); 10,000 kokus; fudai; Kari no ma
Tamura clan
Iwanuma Domain (mujo)=>Ichinoseki Domain (mujo=>joshukaku); 30,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Todo clan
Tsu Domain branch domain (mujo=>joshukaku); 53,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Naito clan
Izumi Domain (joshukaku)=>Annaka Domain (joshu)=> Koromo Domain (joshu); 20,000 koku; fudai
Akanuma Domain (mujo)=>Iwamurata Domain (mujo=>joshukaku) 15,000 koku; fudai; Kiku no ma
Nanbu clan
Morioka Domain branch domain (mujo=>joshukaku); 11,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Hori clan
Muramatsu Domain (joshukaku); 30,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Honda clan
Asakawa Domain (mujo)=>Iho Domain (mujo)=>Sagara Domain (mujo)=>Izumi Domain (joshukaku); 15,000 koku=>20,000 koku, fudai; Teikan no ma
Okudaira clan
Shirakawa Domain branch domain (Shirakawa Nitta Domain) (mujo)=>Kuwaori Domain (mujo) =>Shinozuka Domain (mujo) =>Uesatomi Domain (mujo) =>Kobata Domain (joshukaku); 20,000 koku; fudai; Teikan no ma
Echizen Matsudaira family
Matsue Domain branch domain (mujo=>joshukaku); 30,000 koku; gokamon (the lineage of a prestigious family); Teikan no ma
Matsumae Clan
Matsumae Domain (Ezo no shimanushi [kyakushinkaku]=>kotaiyoriai [alternate yoriai, a family status of samurai warriors in the Edo period]=>mujo)=>Yanagawa Domain (mujo)=>Fukuyama Domain (mujo=>joshukaku); mutaka (no crop yields)=>10,000 koku-kaku (class)=>9,000 koku=>10,000 koku-kaku=>30,000 koku-kaku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Mizuno clan
Hojo Domain (mujo=>joshukaku)=>Tsurumaki Domain (joshukaku); 15,000 koku; fudai; Kari no ma
Mori clan
Tokuyama Domain (mujo=>joshukaku) 45,000 koku=>30,000 koku=>40,000 koku; tozama; Yanagi no ma
Chofu Domain (joshu=>mujo=>joshukaku); 50,000 koku=>38,000 koku=>50,000; tozama; Yanagi no ma

[Original Japanese]