Kanpyo no chi (Glorious rule in Kanpyo era) (寛平の治)

Kanpyo no chi is the name of the rule by Emperor Uda in the mid-Heian Period (late 9th century) which was largely regarded as ideal. Kanpyo is the name of the era ruled by Emperor Uda.

Emperor Uda did not appoint Sekkan (regents and advisers) after the death of Kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor) FUJIWARA no Mototsune in 891, and carried out various political reforms using MINAMOTO no Yoshiari as a virtual leader, promoting trusted vassals such as FUJIWARA no Tokihira, SUGAWARA no Michizane, and TAIRA no Suenaga. According to recent studies, in addition to the abolition of Kento-shi (Japanese envoy to Tang Dynasty China) in 894, register of population, restriction of the private land, and deployment of Takiguchi no Bushi (the guards of the Imperial Palace who were in charge near the palace waterfall) in 896, he seems to have continuously carried out reforms to strengthen the power of kokushi (provincial governors), such as kokushi ukeoi to make kokushi collect all local taxes in their provinces, and making each province pay the salary directly from iden (fields given based on ikai, the court rank) without going through the minbusho (Ministry of Popular Affairs). This era was highly regarded due to the direct rule by the emperor, and sekkan were not appointed because Emperor Uda was disgusted with the Ako Incident and was not born from a mother from the Fujiwara family having an imperial mother, and because Tokihira, the head of the Fujiwara family, was still young.

In 897, Emperor Uda abdicated the throne to Crown Prince Atsugimi (Emperor Daigo), and became a priest in Ninna-ji Temple which he built himself and called himself Cloistered Emperor two years later, but there is an assumption that he in fact managed political affairs in place of the oft-ailing Emperor Daigo.

Most of what was called 'good politics' in the era of Emperor Daigo (Engi no chi) and Emperor Murakami (Tenryaku no chi) and which were highly evaluated as 'Engi-Tenryaku-no-ch' were only extensions of the political measures taken in Kanpyo no chi, and one theory holds that there is evidence that the abolition of slavery was issued in the Kanpyo era, which is generally believed to have been issued in the Enkgi era.

Kanpyo no chi was intended as a return to the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) that protected tenant farmers and suppressed influential families (noble families, temples and shrines with power) by restricting direct bondage between oshinke (nobles in the capital) and the rich classes in the provinces, while at the same time, it was also intended to reinforce organizations ruled by the emperor, including enhancing the kurododokoro (the Chamberlain's Office) and an increase of authority by the Kebiishicho (Office of Police and Judicial Chief). However, like later Engi no chi, these measures did not fit the change of the real social system, and were hardly successful. Recently, however, there is an opinion that it was a preliminary period to convert it into the system of the dynasty state lead by Michizane, and that details were not known because Tokihira destroyed the political records by Michizane.

[Original Japanese]