Konin Gishiki (弘仁儀式)

Konin Gishiki was one of Gishiki (Court rules and customs Books) considered to be compiled during the Konin era at the beginning of the Heian period. These days, however, it is considered that the book itself did not exist.

Only its title and table of contents were recorded in "Honcho shoseki mokuroku" (Catalogue of books in our country) as Gishiki in ten volumes, but not even a surviving fragment of the book, remained. It was formerly believed that the Konin Gishiki was compiled before 819 in parallel with the compilation of Konin Kyakushiki (Laws and Regulations of the Konin Era).

Nevertheless, Kazushi ISHIZUKA advanced the view that the "Konin Gishiki" did not exist from the beginning, by pointing out that although the table of contents of the Konin Gishiki in the "Honcho shoseki mokuroku" included 'Sumai no gi (the Rite of Sumo Wrestling) on July 25 (old calendar),' Sumai no Sechie (Festival of Wrestling) was fixed on July 25 (old calendar) in the Ninna era (885 - 889), about seventy years after the Konin era (810 - 824), and that the Sumai no gi was fixed on July 7 (old calendar) during the Konin era (since ex-emperor Heizei died on July 7 in the first year of the Tencho era (the fifteenth year of the Konin era, 824) and the date became the death day of emperor, the ceremonial functions at the imperial court which had been fixed, had to be fixed on another day), and by further pointing out that the table of contents includes the ceremonial functions, the dates of which did not match those described in a surviving fragment of the Konin shiki (Palace regulations of the Konin era). Besides, two kinds of Gishiki called "Dairi shiki" (Palace regulations) and "Dairi Gishiki" (Book on outline of ceremonies) which were described together with "Konin Gishiki" in "Honcho shoseki mokuroku" were extant and they stated that they were compiled in the Konin era. Accordingly, it came to be considered that they could not afford to compile and establish any other Gishiki in parallel with compilation of "Dairi shiki" and "Dairi Gishiki" which might have been practically used.

Therefore, these days, it has been accepted that people after the mid Heian period might have thought up an imaginary book called the "Konin Gishiki" after the two Gishiki "Jogan Gishiki" and "Engi Gishiki" based on the idea that the ' Gishiki should have been compiled for the three generations as the Kyakushiki had been, because "Jogan Gishiki" and "Engi Gishiki" had already been compiled.'

[Original Japanese]