Konin-Kyaku (弘仁格)

The Konin-Kyaku was a compilation of kyakushiki (penal and administrative law and their amendments) that was compiled and enforced towards the beginning of the Heian Period.
It was a total of 10 volumes

The compilation process

The idea of compiling the laws was around from the time of Emperor Kanmu, but the project only went into full swing when a "law office" was established during Emperor Saga's reign, and FUJIWARA no Fuyutsugu was appointed as the head, with FUJIWARA no Kadonomaro, AKISHINO no Yasuhito, FUJIWARA no Mimori, TACHIBANA no Tsunenushi, and OKIHARA no Miniku as members.

On June 5th, 820, both the Konin-Kyaku and Konin-Shiki were completed and submitted. After revisions and corrections were made to it, it was resubmitted 10 years later on October 26th, 830, and put into effect on December 5th of the same year. As flaws were found in the finalized edition, it was amended and the revised version was distributed on May 24th, 840 under the new title, 'Kaisei Irohibyu Kyakushiki' (Revised and improved edition of the law). The existing copies of the Konin-Kyaku and Konin-Shiki are believed to be from after the final revision.


The most important of the Imperial rescripts, official documents from the State Council, and formal petitions to the Emperor that were enforced for 119 years (from 701 to 819) were compiled by the the respective government officials. The statutes that were still in effect at the time of compilation were collected, and those that were no longer valid were omitted, leaving only the pertinent laws. Uncategorized laws were gathered in the Zakkaku (Miscellaneous law compilation).

Although the original volumes were all lost, the volume titles are listed in the "Koninkyaku-sho" (Extracts of the Konin-Kyaku Code, listed below). Much of the original content is known due to fragments of the code that are included in the "Ruiju sandai kaku" (Assorted regulations from the three generations) and the "Seiji Yoryaku" (Brief outline of the government). Also, the introduction of the Konin-kyaku was also put in the "Honcho monzui"(Anthology of waka poems and prose written in classical Chinese).

Volume order

Volume 1 : Jingikan (Department of Divinities), Nakatsukasa-sho (Ministry of Central Affairs)
Volume 2, Volume 3 : Shikibu-sho (Ministry of Ceremonies)
Volume 4 : Jibu-sho Ministry (Ministry of Civil Administration)
Volume 5, Volume 6, and Volume 7 : Minbu-sho (Ministry of Public Affairs)
Volume 8 : Hyobusho (Military Office)
Volume 9: Gyobusho (Ministry of Justice), Okura-sho (Ministry of the Treasury), Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household), Danjodai (Board of Censors), Kyoshiki (the Capital Bureau)
Volume 10: Miscellaneous (others)

Koninkyaku-sho (Extracts of the Konin-kyaku Code)

The "Koninkyaku-sho"contains extracts of all the Imperial rescripts, official documents from the Grand Council of State, and formal petitions to the Emperor that were compiled in the Konin-kyaku Code, and is arranged in order of the date they were listed, together with a brief overview of the point. The Kanpu and Kanso extracts also included a condensed version of the whole text. The Imperial rescripts were simply listed as 'sho' and 'choku' as they already bore the issue date, which showed which Emperor's era it originated from. The oldest existing copy was a two-part manuscript (which is missing the section from the opening sentence to the start of Volume 1) that belonged to the Kujo Family, and that is believed to have been created during the Kamakura Period. It is currently preserved within the Imperial Palace's archives.

[Original Japanese]