Kugoden (rice fields for cultivation of rice for emperors meal) (供御田)

Kugoden refers to rice fields to cultivate rice (Kugomai) for emperor's meals (Kugo). It was also called Miineta.

In the ritsuryo system, Kanden (imperial estates) undertook that role and was controlled by Oiryo (Bureau of Palace Kitchens under the Ministry of the Imperial Household), but incomes became unstable by reasons that Kanden was lost in various places due to decline of the ritsuryo system and expansion of Shoen (manor in medieval Japan), and nonpayment of tribute of Kugomai continued. Therefore, in the insei period (during the period of the government by the retired Emperor), independent Miineta/Kugoden and Kugonin (purveyors to the imperial household) managing such Miineta/Kugoden were established mainly in the Kinai region (provinces surrounding Kyoto and Nara). According to the "Honcho seiki" (Chronicle of Imperial Reigns), Kugonin managing Miineta in Ishikawa County, Kawachi Province, came up to Kyoto and complained of difficult situations in 1149. Thereafter, Kugoden came to be managed as part of Shoshiden (tax exempt lands that were provided to cover the labor cost of Shoshi [officials]) (estate of Oiryo) of Oiryo.

[Original Japanese]