Kyoto mimawarigumi (京都見廻組)

Kyoto mimawarigumi was an organization for maintaining public order in Kyoto, which was formed by the shogun's retainers at the end of the Edo Period (end of Edo period).

In 1864, the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) appointed Hirotaka MAITA and Yasumasa MATSUDAIRA to Kyoto Mimawariyaku under the command of the Kyoto shugoshoku (Military governor of Kyoto). Afterwards, the Kyoto mimawarigumi was founded with hatamoto (direct retainer of the shogun) and gokenin (immediate vassal of the shogunate in the Kamakura and Muromachi through Edo periods) placed under the Kyoto Mimawariyaku. It is said that the station was set by the Nijo-jo Castle. The two Mimawariyaku respectively formed brigades under their command which were named after the official titles of the commanders as the Sagami no kami (governor of Sagami Province) brigade (Hirotaka MAITA) and the Izumo no kami (governor of Izumo Province) brigade (Yasumasa MATSUDAIRA) with about 200 soldiers under their command.

Along with Shinsengumi (a group who guarded Kyoto during the end of Tokugawa Shogunate), Mimawarigumi specialized in clamping down on those forces which opposed the bakufu, and not offenders. Mimawarigumi mainly covered the government office district including the imperial palace and the area around the Nijo-jo Castle, while Shinsengumi covered towns for merchant class and amusement centers such as Gion and Sanjo. For this reason, it is highly unlikely that Shinsengumi and Mimawarigumi had the chance to establish a common front.

Tadasaburo SASAKI, who was Kumigashira (the leader) of the Sagami no kami brigade, and Kichitaro WATANABE, Yasujiro TAKAHASHI, Hayanosuke KATSURA, Nakazo DOHI, Daizaburo SAKURAI, and Nobuo IMAI are regarded as likely perpetrators of the assassination of Ryoma SAKAMOTO.

[Original Japanese]