Kyotoshi (筥陶司)

Kyotoshi (Vessels Office) was one of the institutions belonging to Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).
The Japanese way of reading is 'Hakosue no tsukasa.'
In Taiho Ritsuryo (Taiho Code), it might be called 'Kyokeshi.'

Official duties

Kyotoshi managed and produced mainly the dinnerware and containers such as earthenware, wooden product, box and so on as its official duty. "Hako" is considered as a round box made with bamboo and hakohe, who was Zakko (special technicians), produced wooden product and bamboo product. However, as for earthenware, a special Zakko did not belong to this.

It is known that Kyotoshi existed as suetsukuribe before Ritsuryo system, but it is unknown that Kyotoshi was born because of the spread of producing technique of earthenware or not, and for years to come, except for the special containers used for ritual and so on, the government is considered to have stopped producing earthenware and it is not sure what happened to suetsukuribe under the Ritsuryo system. The theories of existing official documents or scholars of the law in "Ryonoshuge" (Commentaries on the Civil Statutes) says that earthenwares, used in the Imperial Court or government officials except for special earthenwares used for rituals, were provided by tributes of cho (tributes) and nenryo zakki (ware paid as a tribute) or shozei koeki (provision by shozei [the rice tax stored in provincial offices' warehouse]) and kyotoshi is considered to have only managed and done cashier job for earthenwares collected in the central government.

It was incorporated into Daizenshiki (Office of the Palace Table) in 808.


Kami (director) (corresponding to Jurokui [Junior Sixth Rank]) one member. Jo (secretary) (corresponding to Shohachiinoge [Senior Eighth Rank, Lower Grade]) one member. Reishi (corresponding to Shohatsuinojo [Lesser Initial Rank, Upper Grade]) one member.

Shibu (low rank bureaucrats) six members. Jikicho (factotum) one member.

Hakohe, 197.

[Original Japanese]