Mokuryo (Bureau of Carpentry) (木工寮)

Mokuryo refers to an institution that belonged to Kunaisho (Imperial Household Ministry) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) of Japan adopting the Ritsuryo system. Its Japanese name was Kodakumi no tsukasa.

This was a government office which was mainly in charge of constructions and collections of lumber, and controlled each workman.

Official duties

Mokuryo solely undertook constructions, civil engineering and repairs of the Imperial Court. Concretely speaking, its official duties were constructions and repairs of palace, repairs of public facilities within the imperial capital (esp. Kyoto), manufacturing of wooden products, and so on. Therefore, it had many things to do, and many workpeople and physical workers belonged to it. Even so, since work was troublesome and delayed, palace-related operations were transferred to newly-established Shurishiki (The Palace Repairs Office) in 818, and civil engineering work within the imperial capital was transferred to newly-established Shuribojoshi around the same time, respectively. After that, an improvement or elimination of operations was also repeated frequently.

When the imperial capital was newly constructed, Zokyoshi had jurisdiction over the development of imperial capital, Zogushiki (Office of Making Palaces) (Zogusho [Ministry of Making and Mending Palaces]) had jurisdiction over the construction of palace, and each Zojishi (Officials in Charge of Building Temples) had jurisdiction over the construction of temple. And, office buildings of authorities were constructed under the direction of Mokuryo. Among the above, Zogusho and Zo-Todaiji-shi (Office of Construction of Todai-ji Temple) remained through the Nara period. Unlike other government officials in charge of work site operations, an appointment of Takumibe, the chief of construction work from tomo no miyatsuko (Servant of the Court administering a group), was made according to their respective abilities, not by heredity. Also woodworkers mainly requisitioned from the Hida Province came along with them as their subordinates. Kajitsube (blacksmith's working place) that belonged to Kajishi (Office of Smithery) was transferred to Mokuryo as a result of merging Kajishi in 808, but it ceased to exist.


Kami (Director) (Jugoinojo [Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade])
Suke (Deputy Director) (Shorokuinoge [Senior Sixth Rank, Lower Grade])
Daijo (Senior Secretary) (Shoshichiinoge [Senior Seventh Rank, Lower Grade]), and Shojo (Junior Secretary) (Jushichiinojo [Junior Seventh Rank, Upper Grade])
Daisakan (Senior Clerk) (Juhachiinojo [Junior Eighth Rank, Upper Grade]), and Shosakan (Junior Clerk) (Juhachiinoge [Junior Eighth Rank, Lower Grade])

Sanshi (a court official in charge of calculation) was newly established to make a calculation necessary for new construction and construction work. Takumibe was equivalent to tomo no miyatsuko working as a chief of construction work.

Daiku (Master Carpenter) was newly established to give directions about construction work
Shoku (Deputy of Master Carpenter) was newly established to give directions about construction work. Chojoko was newly established. Banjoko (builders, maintenance workers in the Ritsuryo system) was newly established.
Hida no takumi

Kanjin Zonin (lower-ranking government official) was newly established. Ryosho (administrative official, secretary, commissioner) was newly established.
Shibu (low rank bureaucrats)
Kanjin shicho (a manservant doing odd jobs)
Kushicho (general workers): All personnel remaining after staffing to authorities were assigned to this because a large number of personnel was required.

[Original Japanese]