Naiyakushi (内薬司)

Naiyakushi was one of the agencies that belonged to Nakatsukasasho (Ministry of Central Affairs) under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code).

Official duties

Naiyakushi was paired with Tenyakuryo (the Bureau of Medicine) of Kunaisho (Ministry of the Sovereign's Household). The main duties of Naiyakushi were medical examinations of the Imperial Family and prescriptions for them. There were jii (court physicians) and nyoi (obstetricians) for medical examinations of the Imperial Family, and medical students for prescription. The jii was a top-level medical officer and nyoi was an obstetrician who was recruited from kanko (slaves to public ministries) or kanpi (female slaves to public ministries). There was no doctor among medical students even though it was written with a character '生' (meaning student). The medicinal-herb garden was managed by Yakuenshi (an official in charge of managing the medicinal-herb garden) of Tenyakuryo, also it is considered that the shortfall was compensated by nenryozoyaku (medicinal herb contributed to the central government) collected from every corner of the country. It is considered that medical students were also recruited from Yakuko of Tenyakuryo. Later, in 722, nyoi hakase (doctor of obstetrics) was established in order to train obstetricians.
(Ihakase [Doctor of Medicine] of Tenyakuryo taught until then.)
Thus, even though Naiyakushi was an independent government official, it functioned almost like a department of Tenyakuryo and it was merged with Tenyakuryo in 896. The jii, nyoi hakase and medical students that belonged to Naiyakushi were transferred to Tenyakuryo.


A Kami (same rank as Shorokuinojo [Senior Sixth Rank, Upper Grade])
A Jo (same rank as Jurokui [Junior Sixth Rank] and Jushichii [Junior Seventh Rank])
A Reishi (same rank as Jurokui and Daishoi [Great Initial Rank])
Kanjin Zonin (lower-ranking government official), newly established
Shibe (low rank bureaucrats)
Kanjin Shicho (a manservant doing odd jobs)

Four court physicians (same rank as Shorokuinoge [Senior Sixth Rank, Lower Grade])
A Nyoi hakase (same rank as Jurokui and Shoshichii [Senior Seventh rank]), newly established
A Nyoi
10 medical students

[Original Japanese]