Nenryo bekko zomotsu (年料別貢雑物)

Nenryo bekko zomotsu was the system where a designated amount of Zomotsu such as paper, brushes, horse skin and herbal plants were directly tithed to the central government by Ritsuryo provinces. In the case of herbal plants, it was especially called Nenryo zoyaku.

Originally, specialty goods from each province were sent as Soyocho tithes to the central government and consumed there but it is considered that this system was established to make up a shortfall. There are various theories regarding collection method; collection at the local area using So, Shozei (rice tax) and Jishi trade (trade between tax [rice] and specialty goods), and labor for production with Zoyo are considered possibilities.

"Engishiki" (an ancient book for codes and procedures on national rites and prayers) states that the target was 43 provinces within the entire nation, excluding Kinai and some small fringe provinces.

[Original Japanese]