Nigatsu-sodo (February Rebellion) (二月騒動)

The Nigatsu-sodo refers to the incident that took place in March, 1272 (February, 1272 in old lunar calendar) in the Kamakura period.

It was the incident that took place in the midst of confusions over the reply to the Mongol (Yuan [Dynasty]) letter that was delivered in 1266, and the guard against foreign countries. It was the internal conflict in the Hojo clan leading the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) with the Tokuso family (the direct line of the regency Hojo family) as its center. It was the incident in which Tokisuke HOJO, Rokuhara Tandai Minamikata (Southern Chief of Rokuhara Tandai), the Hojo family (NAGOE family) of the Hojo clan, and others, who were believed to plan a rebellion against the bakufu, were subjugated by the order of the regent Tokimune HOJO. Tokiaki HOJO and his younger brother, Noritoki HOJO, were killed in Kamakura on March 18, and Tokisuke in Kyoto on March 22.

As the result of this incident, the power opposed to the Tokuso family was eliminated. However, it is noted as Yasumori ADACHI, a maternal relative, who addressed this incident, grew too powerful, his confrontation with TAIRA no Yoritsuna, Miuchibito (private vassal of the Tokuso) became graver.

Progress of the Incident
Tokisuke HOJO, the RokuharaTandai Minamikata, who was the regent Tokimune's older brother by a concubine, was assigned the post of Rokuhara Tandai Minamikata, an administrative and judicial agency of the bakufu to watch the Imperial Court in Kyoto, when Tokimune assumed the office of rensho (assistant to regents in the bakufu) in 1264. Kitakata (Northern chief), ranking higher than Minamikata, was Tokishige HOJO, a younger brother of Nagatoki HOJO, who was the previous regent before the last, who supported Tokuso. However, his successor had not been assigned since his death in 1270.

Tokisuke is said to have led Rokuhara with a coalition of the anti-Kamakura group. It is thought when the reaction of the Imperial Court to the Mongol letter was regarded as important, Kamakura became more wary of Kyoto. When Yoshimune HOJO, Nagatoki's son, took the post of Kitakata in January, 1272, he took measures to control the movements of the anti-Kamakura group, such as the confiscation of the shoryo (territory) of Yorikage ADACHI, who was a Rokuhara hyojoshu (a member of Council of State).

The Nagoe clan had been punished, because during the fifth regent Tokiyori HOJO's era (1246 to 1256 in office), Mitsutoki HOJO (NAGOE) allied with Shogun, FUJIWARA no Yoritsune, together with his younger brothers, Tokiaki HOJO (NAGOE) and Noritoki HOJO (NAGOE) to attempt a rebellion (Miya Sodo [the Palace Disturbance]). Kimitoki HOJO, Tokiaki's son, sided with them, which came to light in a while. Mitsutoki barely escaped death, and was banished to Izu, while Tokiaki and Noritoki were not blamed. As Noritoki, who was a hyojoshu, was a close adviser to Shogun, Imperial Prince Munetaka, it is said he was being watched out, when the Imperial Prince was banished.

The existing migyosho (documents for informing of decisions made by third or upper ranked authorities) shows hunting down was ordered by the bakufu, and led by the bakufu regent Tokimune HOJO, the rensho Masamura HOJO, who was the previous regent, and others. Both Tokiaki NAGOE (Nyudo [lay-monk] Kensei) and Noritoki were killed in Kamakura on March 18, 1272, and a court noble, Sanetaka NAKAMIKADO was punished. It is said Tokiaki was innocent of this incident, and hunting down and killing Tokiaki was wrong. After the incident, five pursuers who were Tokuso's vassals were executed. Further, no reward or punishment was given for hunting down and killing Noritoki. The order of the bakufu was sent to Kyoto by post horse on March 22 in the same year, and Tokisuke was killed by Yoshimune HOJO (It is also said he escaped and ran away to Yoshino).

[Original Japanese]