Oshikai or oshigai (押買)

Oshikai or oshigai describes an act of purchase by force in a market place without an agreement between the seller and the buyer. Under the statute, it was called kyoshi. On the other hand, the act of forcing sales of merchandise was called oshiuri.

There was a statute that deemed kyoshi illegal and the offender was subjected to 50 whippings. Since 1240, the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) often issued laws forbidding oshigai. From the middle ages to the beginning of the modern era, oshigai and oshiuri along with pawn taking, were regulated as unacceptable customs in markets. In the territorial laws propagated by Sengoku daimyos (Japanese territorial lords in the Sengoku period), they were listed on the top of prohibited behaviors. According to the "Ouchi-shi Okite-gaki (rules set by Mr. Ouchi)," they were called kobo-kai as well as shugo-gai as some used their official powers and force of arms to coerce sales. Both the "Yuki-ke Hatto" (a territorial law promulgated by the Yuki family) and the "Azuchi-joka Okite-gaki (rules in the castle town of Azuchi)" prohibited oshigai.

[Original Japanese]