Root-Takahira Agreement (高平・ルート協定)

Root-Takahira Agreement refers to an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan signed by the United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Kogoro TAKAHIRA on November 30 after negotiations by those two. It is also known as 'Taiheiyo Homen ni Kansuru Nichibei Koukan Koubun' (an exchange of notes between the United States and Japan concerning the Pacific region).

The agreement officially recognized the territorial status in November 1908 by confirming and admitting the independence and territorial integrity of Qing, free trade and equal commercial opportunities (the 'Open Door Policy' proposed by John Hay), the annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the right to manage the Philippines by the United States, and the position of Japan in Manchuria. The United Stated implicitly admitted Japanese annexation of Korea and dominance over southern Manchuria, and Japan admitted limitations on the immigration to California.

After the Spanish-American War, the United States became a major power in the Eastern Asia. The Japanese government at that time felt increasingly threatened by gaining of Hawaii and the Philippines by the United States since it led to the aggressive economic policies in Qing. Meanwhile, the United States felt unrest about Japanese ambition towards the territorial profit from Qing and its modern and powerful navy after the Russo-Japanese War.

The agreement was valued to greatly release tensions between the United States and Japan.
However, the agreement weaked the United States influence in China over Japanese dominance through Japanese approach to the Russian Empire after the Russo-Japanese Agreement in 1907 and increasing economic investment in Manchuria,

[Original Japanese]