Sanniryo (the office controlling Sanni, courtiers without a post) (散位寮)

Sanniryo was one of the institutions belonging to Shikibu-sho (the Ministry of Ceremonial) in the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the ritsuryo code) in ancient Japan.

Official duties

Sanniryo controlled and evaluated Sanni (courtiers without a post) with the name lists. Sanni was also called Sankan (a position which does not have specific roles) and had only Ikai (Court rank) and did not have a government post. Sanni were divided into officials in charge of the central government and those in charge of provincial governments, as well as into military officers and civilian officers. Most of Sanni were resignees. Sanni, who was higher than goi (Fifth Rank) in the rank, worked full-time in Sanniryo and among people lower than rokui (Sixth Rank) in the rank, those who were in Kyoto did bunban (shiftwork) in Sanniryo, and the others did bunban in kokufu (provincial office) and helped the other government officials and attended to their business as messengers. And Busanni (military officer without post) was controlled by Hyobu-sho (the Ministry of Military). And additionally, when Choshushi (clerks conveying the Public Documents under the System of the Law "Ritsuryo"), who was one of Yodo no tsukai, was in Kyoto, they controlled it. Later the system of Sanni became a mere façade and lost the importance of existence, and in 896 it was incorporated in Shikibu-sho and after that the office work in Sanni was done in Shikibu-sho.


Kashira (head) (corresponding to Jugoinoge [Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade]) one member. Suke (deputy director) (corresponding to Jurokui [Junior Sixth Rank]) one member. Jo (Secretary) (corresponding to Jushichiinoge [Junior Seventh Rank, Lower Grade]) one member. Daisakan (senior clerk) (corresponding to Juhachiinoge [Junior Eighth Rank, Lower Grade]) one member, Shosakan (Junior Clerk) (corresponding to Daihatsuinojo [Greater Initial Rank, Upper Grade]) one member. Kanjin Zonin (lower-ranking government official) six, later four. Sanni. Shibu (low rank bureaucrats). Kanjin shicho (a manservant doing odd jobs).

[Original Japanese]