Sante-gakari (三手掛)

Sante-gakari indicates criminal trials in the Edo period for a samurai, his wife or his children with the family status that had omemie ([the privilege to have] an audience [with one's lord, a dignitary, etc].)

Roju (an officer at the second highest post in the Edo bakufu government) gave instructions for the trial, machi-bugyo (a government officer in charge of public affairs) was appointed as Kakari-bugyo (the officer in charge of the trial), and Ometsuke (chief inspector of the Edo shogunate) and Metsuke (inspector of foot soldiers) were present at the trial. Therefore, this name was given. When a samurai with a high status was involved or the case itself was a serious one, jisha-bugyo (a government officer in charge of shrines and temple) and kanjo-bugyo (in charge of financial affairs) also attended the trial, making it Gote-gakari.

The trials concerned with a samurai himself, his wife or his legitimate heir took place in Hyojosho (conference chamber), and the other trials in a bugyo-sho (bugyo office), and the Ometsuke officer declared at the start of a trial that the it was to be conducted under the instructions of Roju. However, the trial was actually conducted by a machi-bugyo officer and his yoriki (assistant), attended by Okachi-metsuke (officers to work under Metsuke). Although the Ometsuke officer and the Metsuke officer made joint signatures on the Ukagaisho (trial record), Oshioki-zuke or Otogame-zuke which was equivalent to the actual judicial judgment, was made by the machi-bugyo alone, and Ometsuke and the others were not allowed to take part. It was said that this was because Ometsuke officers and Metsuke officers, who were originally people outside the trial work, were prohibited from reading criminal-related laws and regulations including Kujigata-osadamegaki (the law of Edo bakufu). The Ometsuke made an announcement when the trial reached settlement, and the machi-bugyo officer delivered judgment.

Criminal trails for people who had no omemie or people who were not direct retainers of shogun were conducted at a machi-bugyo office, with the presence of only one Metsuke officer. This type of trails was called Metsuke-tachiai-ginmi.

[Original Japanese]