Shizoku no hanran (revolt by family or person with samurai ancestors) (士族反乱)

Shizoku no hanran was a series of the antigovernment movement against Meiji government, which was raised by people from former samurai hierarchy at the beginning of Meiji period.

Meiji government, which was established through Restoration of Imperial Rule (Japan) after Japan opened herself to the world at the late Edo period, abolished daimyo (Japanese feudal lord) and samurai hierarchy and set up the peerage and shizoku under the policy of equity of all people. According to Chitsuroku-shobun (Abolition Measure of Hereditary Stipend), the government abolished not only Horoku (stipend) or Karoku (hereditary stipend) system, but hierarchical perquisite such as implementation of decree banning the wearing of swords. Inside Meiji government, there were heated debates over civilization and enlightenment, over technical and cultural import through the policy of encouragement of new industry and over Seikanron (debate on subjugation of Korea) to dispatch Japanese troops to Korea, which were led by the government itself, and the resignation of Takamori SAIGO, Shinpei ETO and Taisuke ITAGAKI after the political upheaval of the 6th year of Meiji influenced the thought of people from warrior class. Those who were dissatisfied with the principles of Meiji government were called 'fuhei shizoku' (former samurai with gripes).

In 1874, Eto raised a rebellion in Saga Prefecture, his hometown, being backed up by fuhei shizoku (Saga War) and Shimpuren-no-ran War (turmoil of Shimpuren, dissatisfied warrior group) followed in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1876. Akizuki War led by Kurumanosuke MIYAZAKI, a feudal retainer of Akizuki Domain, the branch domain of Fukuoka Domain, broke out in Fukuoka prefecture in response to Shimpuren-no-ran War, and Hagi-no-ran War (turmoil of dissatisfied warriors at Hagi) led by Issei MAEBARA and other shizoku in October of the same year in Yamaguchi prefecture, etc., but each war was subdued. In 1877, Seinan War, the largest one, broke out in Kagoshima Prefecture raised by shizoku from Satsuma including students of Shigakko (school mainly for warriors), backing up Saigo, but again shizoku side was defeated.

After Seinan War, opposition movements by fuhei shizoku shifted to Jiyu Minken Undo (Movement for Liberty and People's Right) demanding the establishment of the National Diet and formulation of a constitution.

[Original Japanese]