The Doyokai (土曜会)
The Doyokai (literally "the Saturday Group") was an internal faction within the House of Peers in Japan's National Diet; the Doyokai lasted from the Meiji period into the Taisho period (from December 7, 1901 to November 15, 1919).
The Doyokai was formed when the Asahi Club and the Koshikai (which was the successor to the Konwakai), fearing the emergence of a maximal faction, Kenkyukai (in the House of Peers), joined forces to reach 53 members (two Dukes, three Counts, seven Viscounts, five Barons, 17 members by imperial decree, and 19 high taxpayers). Motohiro NIJO was elected the first chief secretary of the Doyokai, but in reality the Doyokai was run by others, chief among them Sukenori SOGA, Takeo OZAWA, and Tateki TANI.
At one time the Doyokai swelled to reach 56 members, but thereafter many members began leaving the group one after another. The group continued losing members, particularly after the 1919 formation of the Koseikai (Fairness Group) by the Barons in the House of Peers, at which point, having lost the majority of its members, the Doyokai had lost the qualification as a internal negotiation faction of the House of Peers, and it was therefore decided to merge the group with the first Mushozoku (Unaffiliated Group). But in fact, those group members who held a peerage (a rank in the nobility) refused to honor this arrangement, and so it was only those who were in the House of Peers by imperial decree and the high taxpayers, who in fact comprised the majority of the Doyokai, that participated in the merger and thereby formed the Doseikai.