The Hokke Ikki (Hokke Riot) (法華一揆)
The "Hokke Ikki" is the religious riot which occurred in Kyoto, of the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) around 1532, in Japan.
It is called 'Tenmon-honan' by the Nichiren sect, and is also generally called 'Tenmon-horan.'
At that time in Kyoto, the Nichiren-sect faith became widespread among the Machi-shu (an elite group of businessmen and artisans) around the Nichiren-sect temples (such as Rokujo Honkoku-ji Temple). The sect attained great power and influence. In 1532, a rumor spread that the Jodo Shinshu sect were coming to Kyoto. The Nichiren-sect followers of Machi-shu joined up with the military power of Harumoto HOSOKAWA and set fire to the Ikko sect temples. In particular, Yamashina Hongan-ji Temple was the headquarters of the Ikko sect which had Jinai-cho (the temple town) and the monastery enclosed by earthen walls at the Yamashina basin over the Higashiyama. It was burnt down in this fire.
Later followers of the Nichiren-sect gained autonomy for guarding the inside of Kyoto City. They expanded their power in Kyoto over approximately 5 years.
They did so through acts such as refusing the delivery of Jishisen (the land taxes paid by tenant farmers.)
However, a follower of the Nichiren-sect (Hisayosi MATSUMOTO), refuted the preaching of the Hieizan Western tower's priest, and triggered the priest-soldier army of the Tendai sect Hieizan to start destroying the 'Hokke Ikki' in July, 1536 (old lunar calendar). All followers of the Enryaku-ji Temple (also referred to as Sanmon) gathered together and demanded that the 21 temples of Rakuchu-Hokke, in and around the capital Kyoto, become branch temples of Enryaku-ji Temple. (At that time, prominent temples were in control and made small or medium temples of other sects become their branch temples.
They did so by forcing them to pay money in return for allowing them to continue to be within their present sects.)
However, when this was rejected, Enryaku-ji Temple sought permission for the subjugation of the Hokke sect from the Emperor Gonara. This was done while making alliances with the opposing Enjo-ji, To-ji, Kofuku-ji and Hongan-ji Temples and staying neutral. Then, approximately 60,000 monk soldiers advanced on to the city of Kyoto, and the 21 head temples of the Nichiren sect, inside and outside of the capital Kyoto, were burnt down (Tenmon Hokke no Ran or War of Tenmon Hokke). Furthermore, the initial fire caused a larger fire, which is said damaged an area of Kyoto surpassing the damage done in the Onin War. Due to this the period of prosperity of the Nichiren sect ended, and its followers were deported from Kyoto. Six years after this, the Nichiren sect became a prohibited religion in Kyoto. In 1542, an imperial sanction allowed them to return to Kyoto, and later, the 15 head temples of Nichiren sect were rebuilt.