Kinyo Wakashu (Kinyo Collection of Japanese Poems) (金葉和歌集)

Kinyo Wakashu is the fifth Chokusen Wakashu (anthologies of Japanese poetry compiled by Imperial command), and it was completed before "Shika Wakashu" (Shika Collection of Japanese Poems) and after "Goshui Wakashu" (Later Collection of Gleanings of Japanese Poetry).

Emperor Shirakawa ordered MINAMOTO no Toshiyori to compile the anthology. At the end of 1124, it was first submitted to the Emperor for inspection (shodo bon, the first book), though it had deficiencies and the revised book was submitted (nido bon, the second book) around May, 1125. However, the book was rejected again, and in 1126 or the next year it was finally accepted at the third try (sanso bon, the book submitted for inspection three times). Thus there are three kinds of book, but most of the extant manuscripts are nido bon.
Nido bon was used as the original text for making 'A New Version of Comprehensive National Poems' and 'Japanese Classic Literature Systematic Edition.'

It consists of 10 volumes and was classified into the categories of Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Celebration, Separation, Love (two volumes) and Miscellaneous (two volumes). "Kinyo shu" and "Shika shu" are the only imperial anthologies that consist of just ten volumes. "Kinyo shu" contains more than 650 poems, though the number of poems varies among these three versions of the anthology, reflecting the complicated process of editing. The leading poets in the anthology are MINAMOTO no Tsunenobu and Toshiyori (father and son), and FUJIWARA no Akisue from Rokujo Toke (the Rokujo Fujiwara family).

It broke from a tradition that had lasted since Kokin Wakashu (A Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry), and contained many novel poems by contemporary poets whose style was characterized by the intention toward haiku poetry.
It is true that this ushered in a new phase among poetry circles, but FUJIWARA no Toshinari later criticized that many of the poems lacked a refined style or contained too many 'jokes.'

The pastoralism and realism in "Kinyo shu" surely heralded the dawn of the Medieval ages. It should be appreciated that renga (linked verses) were classified into the second volume of "Miscellaneous" category for the first time.

[Original Japanese]