Buyeo Pung (扶余豊璋)

Buyeo Pung (years of birth and death unknown) was the prince of the last King Uija of Paekche (reign AD 641 to AD 660). Buyeo Pung was the transcription in "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), in "Samguk Sagi" (History of the Three Kingdoms), it was Yeo Pung, and in "Jiu Tang Shu" (Old Tang History), it was Yeo Pung. While he was staying in the old Japan, Paekche was destroyed by Tang Dynasty and Silla, so he returned home to revive Paekche.

Pung came from overseas, according to "Nihonshoki", in March, AD 631. However, in 'History of Paekche' of "Samguk Sagi" (History of the Three Kingdoms), since it says that the relationship with Yamato (ancient Japan) was established in AD 653, it was conjectured that he might have come around this time. In "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), it was already written that on February 15 AD 650 during the rule of Emperor Kotoku, Pung attended the ceremony of the white pheasant presentation (which was the start of changing name of an era) in Naniwanomiya Palace that was under construction. Though Pung was a hostage who mortgages the alliance of Paekche with Japan, Pung was treated as an honored guest, so it was not bad.

In AD 660, news reached that said the Allied Forces of Tang Dynasty and Silla Kingdom suddenly destroyed Paekche. After the Tang army conquered Paekche, the majority returned leaving only a stationed troop of 10,000 soldiers, and therefore a note from Fukushin Kishitsu and others, who was the Sahira (highest officer in Paekche) also came, saying that they had raised a revolt. At that time, King Naka no Oe no Oji (later Emperor Tenchi), who seized the real power in Yamato (ancient Japan), decided to support revival of the Paekche by enumerating all the effort in Yamato, and moved the capital to Chikushi Asakura Palace. In May AD 662, Yamato affixed 5000 soldiers, led by two generals Sai Binro and HATA no Takutsu, and 170 military ships to Pung and dispatched him to Paekche. Thus Pung became able to return country after about 30 years. Pung and the Yamato army joined Fukushin Kishitsu, Pung was recommended as King of Paekche, but later, the discord with Fukushin Kishitsu who seized the real power gradually arose. In June AD 663, Pung eventually murdered Fukushin Kishitsu. However, because of this violent act, Paekche's revival army remarkably weakened and caused the Tang-Silla army to invade.

Pung was besieged to Suru-jo Castle, waited for the reinforcement army of Yamato. However, on August 13, he escaped and left the castle soldiers in the lurch, and joined reinforcement army of Yamato. Before long, the rescue force of 7000 people, led by RYU Jin Ki from the Tang Dynasty, arrived. On both days of August 27, 28, they confronted with Yamato's sea warriors in Baekgang River (also called White River or White Horse River in Korea). As a result, the union army of Yamato and Paekche suffered a crushing defeat. It was called the Battle of Hakusukinoe. Pung escaped in Goguryeo with several attendants. However, Goguryeo also was involved in internal troubles and it was destroyed in AD 668 by the Tang Dynasty. Pung, with royal families of Goguryeo, was taken to the capital in Tang Dynasty. The king of Goguryeo and others were forgiven and granted official ranks in Tang. But Pung was not forgiven and was banished to Reinan region (southern China).

About the younger brother of Pung, according to "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), he was called Paekche King Zenko (different kanji characters of Zenko in "Shoku Nihongi" [Chronicles of Japan Continued]), came from overseas to Japan and stayed here. The descendants were given kabane (hereditary title) of Paekche clan from Emperor Jito, and handed down the royal line of Paekche.

Manyo kajin Guno

In "Manyoshu" Volume 1, chapters 5 and 6, there is a Japanese poem composed by a person called Guno who presented it while he was accompanying the Imperial Progress of Emperor Jomei. However, there is a theory saying that this Guno who was was read "konikishi no Ookimi" may be Pung.

[Original Japanese]