Hayashi Genbi (林元美)

Genbi HAYASHI (1778 - 1861) was an Igo player (Igo (board game of capturing territory)) in Edo period and the eleventh iemoto (the head family of a school) of the Hayashi family (igo), eighth-dan (degree) quasi Meijin (an excellent person). His real name was Genji FUNABASHI and azana (Chinese courtesy name formerly given to adult Chinese men, which used in place of their given name in formal situations; Japanese scholars and the literati adopted this custom of courtesy name) was Hironori. He used Rankado or Ranso for go (pen name) in his literary work. He is known as an author of "Gokyoshumyo" (the foremost classic of Go problem), "Gokyoseimyo" and "Rankadokiwa", which includes historical anecdote and Zuihitsu Essay.

He was born as a child of Mito clan. He learnt a game of Go from a monk in a neighboring temple at age of 9, then at age of 11, he studied a game of Go from Retsugen HONINBO when his father was at Edo kinban (on duty in Edo) and was recognized as 'a young Chinese phoenix in the Go world', then he became a disciple after he returned to home. He achieved nyudan (becoming a professional Go player) at age of 12 and was called Mito kozo. He gained fifth-dan (degree) in 1806. He married to Sueno, a daughter of Tessai HATANAKA, during his stay in Shogoin Temple in Kyoto. In 1819, Tetsugenmonnyu HAYASHI the tenth died and he took over the headship of Hayashi family and became Genbi HAYASHI, through the good offices of Genjo HONINBO, who was the heir of Honinbo. He did not wear a go (pen name) of Monnyu that was worn for generations in Hayashi family. He also attended at the court for Oshirogo (game played in the presence of the shogun in the castle during the Edo period) from this year. In 1829, he advanced to seventh-dan Jozu (a player above seventh-dan).

A part in internal discord in Tenpo era
In 1828, Jowa HONINBO issued Godokoro, (a title that was given in Japan from the beginning of the Edo period until the Meiji Restoration. In that period it was the highest official standing that could be attained by a Go player) and Genbi became a tengannin (additional person signing a written request). However at that time there was a secret agreement to promote Genbi to eighth-dan and also it is said that he requested Nariaki TOKUGAWA of Mito domain for an approach to Yoshinao TSUCHIYA, the jisha-bugyo (magistrate of temples and shrines) of the time, who was adopted from Mito Tokugawa family. In 1831 Jowa became Meijin Godokoro but did not allow promotion of Genbi and ended up with Genbi deceiving Nariaki.

In 1838, Genbi submitted a request for Sogo (official challenge match) of Nijuban against Jowa, with Gennaninseki INOUE as tengannin, since Sanchi (Shuntetsu) YASUI, the heir of Yasui family, was approved to be promoted to seventh-dan. It is said that the request contained former secret agreement. Jowa, who already avoided Sogo against Chitokusenchi YASUI and Inseki, was brought to bay and he returned Godokoro and retired next year. Genbi submitted Kojo-oboe (a letter of request) for promotion to eighth-dan to jisha-bugyo, for the reason that Jowa avoided Sogo. Josaku HONINBO, who took over the headship from Jowa, and Sanchi YASUI submitted letter of refutation, but there was no reply from jisha-bugyo.

Promotion to eighth-dan
He retired in 1849 and transferred the headship of the family to Hakueimonnyu HAYASHI, his real son. In 1852, he was permitted for eighth-dan. This year, he attended at the court for Oshirogo for the last time and lost to Shuwa HONINBO, who was already at eighth-dan, by 7 points at shiroban (white; player starts second). He played 12 games of Oshirogo in his lifetime and the results were two victories and ten defeats. He died at age of 85 in 1861. His homyo (a Buddhist name given to a person who has died or has entered the priesthood) was Senyokoji and he was buried in Seigan-ji Temple, Keraku-in in Asakusa. He was a scholar and wrote many literary works, furthermore, he is said to be the handsome man.

Results of Oshirogo
In 1819, senban (player takes first move) and victory by 7 points against Inshuku HATTORI
In 1820, shiroban and defeat by 11 points against Genan INOUE
In 1821, senban and victory by 4 points against Chitokusenchi YASUI
In 1823, senban and defeat by 3 points against Genjo HONINBO
In 1825, senban and defeat by 8 points against Jowa HONINBO
In 1826, 向二子 and defeat by 9 points against Sanchi (Shuntetsu) YASUI
In 1827, shiroban and defeat by Chuoshi (admit defeat before the last game) against Jowa HONINBO
In 1834, shiroban and defeat by Chuoshi against Shuntetsu YASUI
In 1838, shiroban and defeat by Chuoshi against Josaku HONINBO
In 1842, shiroban and defeat by Chuoshi against Sentoku SAKAGUCHI
In 1852, shiroban and defeat by 7 points against Shuwa HONINBO
In 1852, 向二子and defeat by Chuoshi against Matsumotoinseki INOUE

Literary work
"Gokyorenju"in 1808, includes Uchigo (a record of game of Go) in the time of Sansa HONINBO to Dochi HONINBO
"Gokyoshumyo" in 1812, collection of Tsumego (study of Go, in the position in a game of Go that decide life and death of a Go stone) and basic tesuji (moves in game of Go and Shogi (Japanese Chess))
"Shochugosen" in 1831, another name was 'Bekkochinkan', collection of Tsukurimono (tsumego)
"Gokyoseimyo"in 1835, includes set moves in Go or Shogi and tesuji of yose (endgame)
"Rankadokiwa" in 1849
It is a collection of historical anecdotes, stories, essay and records of Go, with annotations and reviews added. It also describes monjo (written material) that has been passed down through four families of iemoto (the head family of a school) and Go circles in the period. It was also referenced in Nyoi ANDO 's "Zaindanso" in Meiji period. It includes anecdotes in China, Korea, India and Ryukyu (present Okinawa) after Tenpyo era in Japan, story of Sango in Honnoji Incident and many games of Go, such as Nichiren against his disciple, Nichiro, Singen TAKEDA against Masanobu NOSAKA and Masayuki SANADA against Nobuyuki SANADA (parent and child), which are introduced with Kifu (record of a game of Go, shogi, chess, etc.). Especially, Kifu of Nichiren was said to be the oldest Kifu in Japan, however it is now believed to be a work of later generations. Genbi later changed the title of the work to "因云碁話" but it is mostly passed down as "Rankadokiwa".

The manuscript was passed down from Sano HAYASHI of the branch family of Hayashi family, to her disciple, Fumiko KITA, and through a certain Kishi (a Go or shogi player) who borrowed the manuscript, it was published 3 times in 1907, and on every Sunday "Jiji Shinpo" in 1910-11.

In 1914, the third daughter of Sano HAYASHI, Kiku HAYASHI who was a female Kishi (Igo), published it all together from Ono Banzai Kan
In 1978, it was published from The Toyo Bunko (Oriental Library) (Heibonsha Limited, Publishers) after revised and annotated by Yutaka HAYASHI. Where about of the original script is unknown, but a manuscript of "因云碁話" is kept in National Diet Library.

"Gokyoshumyo kohen" includes tsumego, collection of tesuji and Genbi's 25 games of Uchigo. Shusai HONINBO published it in 1913. Printing blocks of original book are still remaining and from the condition, it is estimated that the book was printed around 1000 copies.

Woodblock printed Kifu of Oshirogo had been distributed to Go players, however Tessai HATANAKA borrowed it and he published "Tosei Kifu" that included 50 games of Oshirogo in 1817. It was the first collection of Uchigo by woodblock printing. Four families of iemoto, including Chitoku YASUI, claimed to jisha-bugyo that it was publication of treasured Kifu without permission, however Genbi persuaded each iemoto into Tessai's discharge. After this incidence, publication of Kifu was simplified and 2 years later, Tessai published "Shike Hyojo: Meisei Gokagami."

[Original Japanese]