Gyotoku Gyokuko (行徳玉江)

Gyokuko GYOTOKU (June 1828-June 22 1901) was a composer of Chinese poems, a calligrapher, a literati painting and a Tenkoku (seal engraving) artist.

His real name was 直貫 (直 was a given name) or 貫, azana was 仁卿, the second name was 檜園・九柳十橋逸士 in addition to 玉江. His by-name was 元慎.
He was born in Naniwa (Osaka Prefecture)

Brief biography
The founder of GYOTOKU family was believed to have been descended from the Kanmu-Heishi (TAIRA clan) of 直英 KUMAGAYA
He started practice medicine for eyes in Chikugo Province. His family dealt in oculist for generations. The fourth eye doctor went to Osaka Prefecture starting practice medicine for eyes there. The fifth eye doctor Motoyasu settled down in Osaka Prefecture winning fame as a highly skilled Confucian and a doctor. He was born to Motoyasu's family as the sixth GYOTOKU and had special education. GYOTOKU studied Chinese poetry and Keisho that is the general term for most important literature in Confucianism under the Kotake SHINOZAKI at the age of 10. After admitted Gyokuso HIROSE's talent for poetry, Motoyasu sent GYOTOKU to study poetry under the tutorship of Gyokuso HIROSE.
GYOTOKU kept company with his colleagues including Aida FUJII, 柴秋邨 and 長三洲
GYOTOKU studied medicine at Mubai IMAEDA's in Kyoto Prefecture.

At the age of 14, GYOTOKU received a Kinjo KANAE's guidance for nanga (a school of painting originating in China). At the age of 18, appearing in "浪華画家名流" (list of painter in Osaka Prefecture), Gyokuro was recognized as a painter. GYOTOKU also received a Kaio NUKINA's guidance for calligraphy in Kyoto Prefecture. GYOTOKU studied tenkoku (seal-engraving) under Hokusho GO and won fame as a seal-engraver more than as a calligrapher. Admonished by his uncle to devote all the energies to either the medical profession or calligraphy, GYOTOKU flatly abandoned the medical profession. Touring various parts of Kyushu, GYOTOKU took lessons in drawing technique from Tetsuo-Somon in Nagasaki prefecture. He kept on touring and went to Echizen Province, Iyo Province and Ise Province and so on. In 1854, GYOTOKU went to Izumo Province and stayed there as long as 3 years, shortly after his marriage.

Concerned about the future of nanga (a school of painting originating in China), in 1885 he planed to found an art school in Osaka Prefecture and proposed it to the Osaka prefectural governor. The school was founded and named as Gyokuko kan.

GYOTOKU died at the age of 74. His Kaimyo (posthumous Buddhist names) was 南宗院画禅直逸居士. Nangaku FUJISAWA chose the epitaph on the tombstone. GYOTOKU's ashes was placed in Myotoku-ji Temple in Fukishima Ward but later replaced in Nukata, Makioka City.

GYOTOKU left Inpu (a collection of personal seals) "風人余藝," a collection of poetry "停雲吟草" and Gafu (a collection of calligraphy) "Gyokuko Gapu".

[Original Japanese]