Hakura Katei (羽倉可亭)

Katei HAKURA (a male, 1799 - August 12, 1887) was a calligrapher and a Tenkoku artist (a carver who carved Chinese characters in the special, Tensho, style) in Japan in the latter half of the Edo period.

His name was Yoshinobu.
He wa also called Shibun, and used Yakukaso-do in addition to Katei as the title for his profession

Summary of his personal history
He was born as a son of Ennen who was a Shinto priest at Fushimi Inari-taisha Shrine. He was brought up by Nobutaka who was the mokudai (deputy) of the shrine and became his heir. At the age of 14, he was appointed to Suruga no kuni kokushi (the provincial governor of Suruga Province) in the rank system of Japan and assumed the post of Kurodo Juhakken Mokudai at age of 17. However, he resigned from the post at the age of 24, and wandered around various places in Japan.

In his childhood, he learned Keigaku (an ancient Chinese book about Confucianism) and calligraphy under Kotei MURASE, learnt landscape painting and carving Tensho-style Chinese characters from Geppo, and later learnt painting from Toyohiko OKAMOTO. While earning his living through selling books and selling In (an object on top of which a seal pattern has been carved), he went to Edo and studied under Shibutsu OKUBO, and learned from Rinkoku HOSOKAWA how to carve Tensho-style Chinese characters. After Meiji Restoration, his Imperial In and landscape paintings were purchased by Imperial Household Agency. In particular, he was favored by Imperial Prince Arisugawanomiya Taruhito.

He held his 88-year old celebration at Nakamura-ro (a Japanese-style hotel) in Gion, and was presented with waka poems for the celebration by Imperial Prince Yamashinanomiya Akira and by Imperial Prince Kuninomiya Asahiko.

He died at Yasaka Shrine in August of 1887, the next year. His tombstone is placed at Mt. Inari. His son, Nanen HAKURA, also earned his living through carving Tensho-style Chinese characters.

His landscape paintings and other works are kept in The University Art Museum, Tokyo University of the Arts.

The books he wrote
"Tenkoseiryu" (in 1880)
"Katei Inpu" (literally, a compilation of seal marks by Katei)

[Original Japanese]