Hatakeyama Mitsuie (畠山満家)

Mitsuie HATAKEYAMA (1372 - October 31, 1433) was a shugo daimyo (shugo, which were Japanese provincial military governors, that became daimyo, which were Japanese feudal lords) and a kanrei (shogunal deputy) in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts and the Muromachi period. His real family name was Genji. The family was one of Seiwa-Genji (Minamoto clan originated from Emperor Seiwa) lineage. Hatakeyama clan was a branch family of Ashikaga clan whose ancestor was MINAMOTO no Yoshikuni who was a child of MINAMOTO no Yoshiie, who was a Chinju-fu shogun (Commander-in-Chief of the Defense) and the head of Kawachi-Genji. Mitsuie HATAKEYAMA was a child of Motokuni HATAKEYAMA. His real mother is unknown. His official rank was Owari no kami (the Governor of Owari). Saemon no kami.


Mitsuie was born as a legitimate son of Motokuni HATAKEYAMA, the family head of Hatakeyama clan. He served under Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA together with his father. Though he temporarily fell down after his father's death, he recovered in the era of Yoshimochi ASHIKAGA to be successively appointed to a shugoshiki (military governor) of Kawachi Province, Kii Province and Ecchu Province. As an influential person to the shogunate government, Mitsuie served as a kanrei from June 1410 to March 1412 and from August 1421 to August 1429 when Yoshimochi was a shogun. He became Shugo (provincial constable) of Yamashiro Province in his later years.


In Oei War in 1399, he was a part of the army of bakufu as well as his father and achieved a military exploit in which he defeated the enemy general, Yoshihiro OUCHI. However, he was alienated from Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA to temporarily fall down. After his father Motokuni died, the family headship was inherited by his younger brother, Mitsunori HATAKEYAMA. However, as Yoshimitsu died and Yoshimochi ASHIKAGA became a shogun, Mitsunori returned the family headship and Mitsuie became the family head (this was honored as 'admirable action in the world'). As an influential person to the shogunate government of Yoshimochi, he served as a kanrei from June 1410 to March 1412 and from August 1421 to August 1429. After the retirement of Yoshimochi, Mitsuie supported the fifth shogun, Yoshikazu ASHIKAGA. However, the former shogun Yoshimochi came back due the death of Yoshikazu in his early life; Mitsuie again became in charge of government affairs. When the former shogun Yoshimochi died in 1428, Mitsuie decided to determine the successor among Yoshimochi's four younger brothers by drawing lots. As a result, Tendai-zasu (the head priest of the Tendai sect of Buddhism), Gien, returned to secular life to become a new shogun Yoshinori ASHIKAGA. Mitsuie influenced the shogunate government also in the period of Yoshinori as a shukuro (chief vassal). On September 19, 1433, he died at the age of 62. His hogo (posthumous Buddhist name) was 真観寺殿真源道端.

Yoshinori who was feared as a shogun who executed purges was laid restraint on his action while Mitsuie was alive. Mitsuie made an effort to avoid the war, trying to reconcile shogun with Kamakura kubo (Governor-general of the Kanto region), Mochiuji ASHIKAGA. However, Mitsuie's death meant the disappearance of the person who could restrain Yoshinori. This led to Yoshinori's subsequent purges.

[Original Japanese]