Tachibana no Hayanari (橘逸勢)
TACHIBANA no Hayanari (782 - September 24, 842) was a calligrapher and government official during the Heian Period. Hayanari was TACHIBANA no Irii's youngest child and the youngest brother of TACHIBANA no Nagatsuguand TACHIBANA no Nagana. He was also a cousin to the wife of Emperor Saga, TACHIBANA no Kachiko. He excelled in calligraphy, and, alongside Kukai and Emperor Saga, is considered to be one of the three great calligraphers. His children include TACHIBANA no Tateyasu.
In 804, Hayanari went to T'ang China as an envoy along with Saicho and Kukai. In 842, his plot with TOMO no Kowamine to establish a government headed by Imperial Prince Tsunesada was detected and he was arrested (The Jowa Era Accession Dispute). The two men were tortured by being beaten with a stick; Kowamine was banished to Oki Province (he was later transferred to Izumo Province; details unknown), and Hayanari was banished to Izu Province. Hayanari died at the age of 60 some-odd-years while he was being taken to Izu, at Hozuki District in Totomi Province (Today Honzaka, Mikkabi Town, Hamamatsu City). His daughter, who was following him, was saddened to learn of her father's death at Hozuki Station. The daughter buried her father, became a nun, took the name Myochu, and built a thatched hut to grieve for her father.
In 853, after his death, Hayanari was pardoned and awarded the rank of Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade). It is recorded in Montoku Jitsuroku (fifth of the six classical Japanese history texts) that at that time, the story of Hayanari's dutiful daughter was told in the city and she was highly praised.
There is no record of Hayanari's heir, Tateyasu (Hayanari's family genealogy includes TACHIBANA no Yasumasa, his grandson and TACHIBANA no Naomoto, his great-grandson).
As a calligrapher
While Hayanari was in T'ang, he learned calligraphy from Liu Zongyuan, and the people of T'ang praised Hayanari as the genius Tachibana. There remains almost nothing of Hayanari's work that can be verified. The Kofukuji dotodaimei and Imperial Princess Ito's prayer in Sanjujo Sasshi (30 sliding doors) by Kukai were thought to be written by Hayanari, but this has not been verified. The writing is presumed to be Hayanari's, because no other calligrapher but Hayanari had the writing style seen in them.
Ito Naishinno Gammon
This ganbun was written when Imperial Princess Ito, the 8th daughter of Emperor Kammu, presented approximately 16 cho (cho = 0.99 hectares) of rice field, 1 vegetable field, and a manor as payment for light and the recitation of sutra to Toinseido of Yamashina-dera Temple, as requested in the will of her mother, FUJIWARA no Heishi, on November 10, 833 by the old calendar. There were 68 lines in gyosho font on a mulberry paper and there were two characters 伊都 (Ito) at the end. Imperial Princess's handprints in red ink are found in 25 places. It was written in the Ogishi style with some new Chinese touches, expressing great movement in vast space.