Kashio Umanosuke (柏尾馬之助)

Umanosuke KASHIO (1838-April 30, 1868) was a person who was from Awa Province in the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate. He actively worked first in the Shinchogumi (Tokugawa Shogunate guard organization) and later became a patriot of forces overthrowing the Shogunate. He was also a Kengo (great swordsman) of swordplay of the Hokushin-Ittoryu school. He was in the sixth squad of the Roshigumi (masterless warriors group), and his posts in the Shinchogumi were Teacher of swordsmanship (substituted teaching), kumigashira (head of the group), sponsorship, etc.

After resigning from the Shinchogumi, he supported the movement of Sonno (Movement advocating reverence for the Emperor) and anti-Shogunate to contribute to the Meiji Restoration.



Born in 1838 in Sadamitsu, Mima County, Awa Province.

This is present Tsurugi Town, Mima County, Tokushima Prefecture.

He was the second son of Kazo KASHIO, a retainer of the Hachisuka family (Matsudaira awa no kami).
(His brother was Motozaemon KASHIO.)

Swordplay Dojo (training hall)

He managed a swordplay dojo of the Hokushin-Ittoryu school in Sahara of Shimousa Province (present Sawara City, Chiba Prefecture).

Some of his students later joined the Shinsengumi (a group who guarded Kyoto during the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate).

Sixth Squad, Roshigumi

In 1863, he established 'Roshigumi' with Hachiro KIYOKAWA, Tesshu YAMAOKA, Shungoro MURAKAMI, and Shuzo ISHIZAKA, who were the key persons of 'Torao no kai,' a Sonno Joi kyushinha group (radical group of Sonno Joi, expulsion of foreigners).

(Although Murakami and Kashio were both from Awa, were close friends since they were in Awa, both lived in Sahara, and belonged to the same swordsmanship school, the Hokushin-Ittoryu school, there is no record indicating that Kashio belonged to the Torao no kai.)

The Roshigumi had an endorsement as a Joi group from the bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) as a result of the submission of the petition 'three plans of urgent business' by Kiyokawa through Yamaoka in 1862.

The bakufu's intention was to establish 'a convenient group with which they could collectively manage Sonno Joi and pro-Imperialist masterless warriors who threatened the public order.'

This, however, was Kiyokawa's trick to outsmart the bakufu to establish 'a radical Sonno Joi group certified by the bakufu.'

In February 1863, Kashio left Edo, together with Murakami (kumigashira) and the sixth squad of the Roshigumi, and went to Kyoto via the Nakasen-do Road.

A radical Joi party from Mito including Kamo SERIZAWA and a Shieikan group of the Tennenrishin school including Isami KONDO, Toshizo HIJIKATA, Soji OKITA, and Shinpachi NAGAKURA joined them before their arrival at Mibu village, Kyoto (present Mibu, Nakagyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture). Eminent people who later worked actively at the end of the Edo period joined the sixth squad of the Roshigumi.

At Mibu village, Kashio, Murakami, and some others stayed at the Mibu village assembly office, and Serizawa, Kondo, and some others stayed at the Yagi Residence.

This accommodation assignment had a significant impact on the split of the Roshigumi immediately thereafter.

Kiyokawa's official document of Sonno Joi, which surprised the bakufu, was accepted by the imperial court, and having received an imperial decree, the Roshigumi left Kyoto in March of that year and went to Edo.

However, those who were members of the Roshigumi like Kashio and Murakami but protested against Kiyokawa's action, which appeared to be betrayal of the bakufu, including Kondo, Serizawa, and others, mainly those staying at the Yagi Residence, and the Yuzan NEGISHI's group decided to remain at Mibu Village to split from the Roshigumi.

The members of the Roshigumi who remained at the Mibu village called themselves Mibu-Roshigumi, and later formed the Shinsengumi.
(Yuzan NEGISHI left the Mibu-Roshigumi to join the Shinchogumi when the Kondo group of the Shinsengumi started purging.)

The bakufu was concerned that Kiyokawa would use the Roshigumi as a card for the Sonno and anti-shogunate movement, and sent assassins, including Tadasaburo SASAKI, in April of that year to murder Kiyokawa at Ichinohashi, Azabu.

Before and after the murder, many of the members of the Torao no kai, including Murakami and Ishizaka, were arrested, and the Roshigumi was dissolved.

Shinchogumi, Teacher of Swordsmanship

Immediately after the murder of Kiyokawa, the Roshigumi was reorganized by the bakufu as "Shinchogumi," security guards of Edo City, changing its direction dynamically.

The headquaters was at Edo honjo (Sumida Ward) (present Honjo, Sumida Ward, Tokyo (Sumida Ward)).

In 1864, it was placed under the custody of Shonai clan.

Kashio's talent was recognized in a geki-ken (swordsmanship) match, and he was appointed a teacher of swordsmanship of the Shinchogumi.

He trained the members as a substitute for Kanji YAMADA, who was a head teacher of swordsmanship of the Shinchogumi and a senior apprentice of Hokushin-Ittoryu school, and also led the members as kumigashira and worked to guard Edo City.

However, he suffered Rogai (tuberculosis), and sometimes coughed up blood.

Resignation from the Shinchogumi - as a patriot of the restoration

When the influence of the Shonai clan on the Shinchogumi increased and the characteristics of the Shinchogumi as a sabaku group (supportive group for the bakufu) became stronger, he left the Shinchogumi.

Before and after his leaving, not only kobu-gattai (integration of the imperial court and the shogunate) groups but also Sonno and anti-shogunate groups contacted Kashio, and as a patriot he became more widely devoted to the restoration.

He was intimate with Kaishu KATSU of the bakufu and Ryoma SAKAMOTO of Kaientai (an association of roshi organized by Ryoma SAKAMOTO) (Roshi association).

Returning Home

He returned to Awa (Sadamitsu, Mima County) in his later years for curing.

Even after returning home, he harbored Sonno, anti-shogunate, pro-Imperialist samurai in his residence, and his attitude to contribute to the restoration did not change until the last minute of his life.

Died on April 30, 1868. His life ended when the modern days started.

Kaimyo (posthumous Buddhist name): 武堅院 義秀勝遠日行居士.

His graveyard was in the Kashio family's cemetery in his hometown, Sadamitsu, Tsurugi-machi, Mima County, Tokushima Prefecture.
(The graveyard is now in Tokushima City.)

After his death, his father Kazo recommended Umanosuke's wife, who was a close blood relative of Shusaku CHIBA, a swordsman of Kodachijutsu (swordmanship of kodachi, a small sword) of Hokushin-Ittoryu school, to return to her family's home in Chiba. When leaving to return home, she left in the Kashio family a short sword that she had brought from the Chiba family.


Family Crest

His family crest was maru ni mitsukashiwa (Three oak leaves in a circle).


He sometimes used '柏尾右馬之助' and '柏尾右馬助,' but '柏尾馬之助' is written on his tombstone and in the family trees.

Ichiro KASHIO, who was a member of the late Shinsengumi, is a different person.


His photograph is maintained by the descendants of the Kashio family. Skinny, right-handed.

East and West (Shinchogumi and Shinsengumi)

Umanosuke KASHIO, who was a teacher of swordsmanship in the Shinchogumi, and Soji OKITA, who was a grand master of Gekken martial art in the Shinsengumi

Although their late-life beliefs were completely different, restoration (Kashio) and supporting bakufu (Okita), they were both genius expert swordsmen and teachers or masters at young ages. Suffered Rogai (tuberculosis) and died young.

They both died in 1868, having many similarities.

[Original Japanese]